Table 3

Fetal and neonatal complications in type 1 diabetic pregnancies and the general obstetric population

Outcome variableProportions (% if not indicated otherwise)
OR (95% CI) for group differences
Type 1 diabetesControlCrudeAdjusted
Stillbirth1.50.34.04 (3.02–5.40)3.34 (2.46–4.55)
Fetal distress146.22.45 (2.24–2.69)2.34 (2.12–2.58)
Perinatal mortality (‰)204.84.02 (3.11–5.20)3.29 (2.50–4.33)
Neonatal mortality, 0–7 days (‰)5.11.82.91 (1.97–4.28)3.05 (1.68–5.55)
Neonatal mortality, 0–28 days (‰)7.02.23.08 (2.02–4.70)2.67 (1.72–4.16)
Birth <37 weeks gestational age215.15.27 (4.88–5.71)4.86 (4.47–5.28)
Birth <32 weeks gestational age2.30.73.58 (2.89–4.44)3.08 (2.45–3.87)
LGA313.612.2 (11.4–13.1)11.4 (10.6–12.4)
SGA2.32.50.80 (0.63–1.02)0.71 (0.55–0.91)
Major malformations4.71.82.70 (2.37–3.08)2.50 (2.13–2.94)
Apgar score <7 at 5 min3.11.12.98 (2.54–3.50)2.60 (2.14–3.17)
Apgar score <4 at 5 min0.800.302.60 (1.79–3.78)2.39 (1.64–3.51)
Erb palsy*2.10.257.91 (5.77–10.8)6.69 (4.81–9.31)
Respiratory distress syndrome1.00.204.88 (3.51–6.81)4.65 (2.20–9.84)
Respiratory disorders9.52.64.02 (3.67–4.42)3.42 (3.04–3.85)
  • Data are proportions or OR (95% CI). Adjusted OR, OR adjusted for group differences in maternal age, BMI, parity, chronic hypertensive disorder, smoking habits, and ethnicity.

  • *Vaginal deliveries only.