Table 1—

Participant characteristics by retinal vascular fractal dimension quartiles

CharacteristicsAllRetinal vascular fractal dimension
First quartile: <1.45023Second quartile: 1.45023–1.46207Third quartile: 1.46214–1.47215Fourth quartile: ≥1.47217P value
n729182182182183
Sex (% male)44.240.745.648.941.50.722
Age (years)13.6 (12.8–15.0)13.6 (12.8–14.9)13.6 (12.8–15.0)13.7 (12.9–15.0)13.7 (12.8–15.1)0.724
Diabetes duration (years)5.3 (3.4–8.1)4.6 (3.2–7.3)5.2 (3.3–8.0)5.4 (3.6–8.0)5.8 (3.5–8.6)0.016
BMI (kg/m2)21.2 (19.3–23.6)21.0 (19.3–23.8)21.5 (19.3–23.7)21.5 (19.4–23.7)20.9 (19.1–23.4)0.907
Systolic blood pressure, age- and sex-adjusted percentile68 (46–85)68 (52–85)64 (50–85)70 (42–85)69 (43–85)0.615
Diastolic blood pressure, age- and sex-adjusted percentile72 (50–83)67 (47–83)71 (50–82)72.5 (52–83.5)74 (50–84)0.241
A1C (%)8.4 (7.7–9.3)8.4 (7.7–9.4)8.2 (7.7–9.2)8.8 (7.8–9.6)8.4 (7.7–9.1)0.673
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 (3.8–4.8)4.3 (3.8–4.8)4.3 (3.8–4.8)4.2 (3.6–4.8)4.3 (3.9–4.8)0.877
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or proportion, as appropriate. P values relate to trend across quartiles, assessed by Kendall's rank correlation test or Cuzick nonparametric test for trend.