Table 2—

Relationship between retinal vascular fractal dimension and diabetic retinopathy

Retinal fractal dimensionN totalPrevalence*Age and sex adjustedP valueMultivariable adjustedP value
Per 0.01 increase7291.33 (1.19–1.49)<0.0011.37 (1.21–1.56)<0.001
Quartile 1: <1.4502318216 (8.8)1.01.0
Quartile 2: 1.45023–1.4620718231 (17.0)2.16 (1.13–4.12)0.0202.07 (1.03–4.18)0.041
Quartile 3: 1.46214–1.4721518239 (21.4)2.94 (1.57–5.52)0.0013.01 (1.53–5.94)0.001
Quartile 4: ≥1.4721718351 (27.9)4.07 (2.21–7.49)<0.0013.92 (2.02–7.61)<0.001
Ptrend<0.001<0.001
  • Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI).

  • * Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in either eye.

  • OR (95% CI) of prevalent diabetic retinopathy (any grade compared with none in either eye) adjusted for age (continuous per 1 year increase) and sex.

  • OR (95% CI) adjusted for age (continuous per 1 year increase), sex, diabetes duration (continuous-per 1 year increase), A1C (continuous per 1 mmol/l increase), MABP (continuous per 1 mmHg), BMI (continuous per 1 kg/m2 increase), and total cholesterol (continuous per 1 mmol/l increase).