Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 4,472 Dutch adults aged ≥55 years across categories of total fish intake

CharacteristicsFish intake
P
NoLow (0–12 g/day)Moderate (12–28 g/day)High (≥28 g/day)
n1,3141,0611,0071,090
Age (years)67.8 ± 8.167.6 ± 7.566.8 ± 7.566.6 ± 7.4<0.001
Follow-up (years)10.9 ± 3.710.8 ± 3.611.0 ± 3.410.8 ± 3.60.70
Men (%)38.641.941.142.90.16
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 ± 3.526.3 ± 3.726.4 ± 3.826.2 ± 3.40.31
Waist circumference (cm)89.1 ± 11.090.1 ± 11.090.0 ± 10.989.8 ± 11.00.10
Smokers (%)0.004
    Current21.824.622.224.0
    Former40.643.443.146.2
    Never37.632.134.729.8
Family history of diabetes (%)28.227.626.927.90.92
History of CHD (%)11.712.713.510.90.28
Hypertension (%)29.832.032.731.00.46
Cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Total cholesterol6.6 ± 1.36.7 ± 1.16.7 ± 1.26.8 ± 1.20.02
    HDL cholesterol1.4 ± 0.361.4 ± 0.351.4 ± 0.361.4 ± 0.400.30
Educational level (%)<0.001
    Low35.537.531.630.9
    Intermediate54.951.754.953.2
    High9.610.813.515.9
Diet prescription (%)9.611.111.110.90.55
Dietary intake
    Energy (kcal/day)1,962 ± 4851,953 ± 5031,989 ± 5242,025 ± 5210.004
    Carbohydrates (energy %)45.1 ± 7.144.1 ± 7.043.9 ± 6.843.3 ± 6.8<0.001
    Protein (energy %)16.5 ± 3.016.8 ± 2.917.2 ± 3.117.8 ± 3.1<0.001
    Total fat (energy %)36.7 ± 6.436.9 ± 6.136.5 ± 6.135.9 ± 6.10.001
    Saturated fatty acids (energy %)14.8 ± 3.214.6 ± 3.114.2 ± 3.114.0 ± 3.3<0.001
    Trans fatty acids (energy %)1.3 ± 0.481.3 ± 0.481.2 ± 0.431.2 ± 0.45<0.001
    EPA and DHA (mg/day)*25.2 (13.0–40.7)63.5 (39.5–95.4)132 (100–188)245 (182–374)<0.001
    Fiber (g/day)16.6 ± 5.016.8 ± 5.317.1 ± 5.317.2 ± 5.00.02
    Cholesterol (mg/day)225 ± 80.8226 ± 79.5233 ± 80.3251 ± 85.7<0.001
    Selenium (μg/day)27.3 ± 7.429.5 ± 7.633.4 ± 8.141.7 ± 11.3<0.001
    Vitamin D (μg/day)1.9 ± 1.22.0 ± 1.22.2 ± 1.42.6 ± 1.8<0.001
Alcohol (%)<0.001
    No23.820.415.416.8
    Low29.530.529.724.3
    Moderate26.124.426.826.0
    High20.624.728.132.9
Fish (g/day)
    Lean05.1 ± 3.314.8 ± 5.533.6 ± 15.9<0.001
    Fatty01.3 ± 2.32.9 ± 4.77.7 ± 14.0<0.001
    Shellfish00.08 ± 0.510.21 ± 1.30.32 ± 2.0<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD or % unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Value expressed as median (interquartile range) because of skewed distribution.