Table 2

Counterregulatory hormone concentrations by age-group

Young childrenAdolescents
Epinephrine
    n1414
    Baseline (pg/ml)47 (39, 56)27 (25, 37)
    Peak (pg/ml)82 (68, 115)71 (41, 229)
    Change (pg/ml)*36 (23, 68)50 (16, 182)
    Increased ≥3 SDs10 (71)10 (71)
Norepinephrine
    n1414
    Baseline (pg/ml)120 (107, 128)153 (108, 226)
    Peak (pg/ml)138 (122, 186)219 (169, 271)
    Change (pg/ml)*31 (9, 64)40 (26, 76)
    Increased ≥3 SDs5 (36)6 (43)
Cortisol
    n1414
    Baseline (μg/ml)9.4 (8.2, 10.9)12.7 (10.1, 14.1)
    Peak (μg/ml)10.1 (8.5, 11.7)12.0 (9.8, 14.4)
    Change (μg/ml)*−0.5 (−1.4, +1.9)+0.1 (−0.6, +0.8)
    Increased ≥3 SDs5 (36)3 (21)
Growth hormone
    n1414
    Baseline (ng/ml)1.4 (0.5, 4.2)2.0 (0.3, 9.7)
    Peak (ng/ml)5.2 (2.2, 13.9)6.7 (2.6, 18.8)
    Change (ng/ml)*1.6 (−0.3, 9.4)2.5 (−0.4, 17.3)
    Increased ≥3 SDs9 (64)9 (64)
Glucagon
    n1314
    Baseline (pg/ml)42 (33, 50)48 (32, 57)
    Peak (pg/ml)42 (36, 43)50 (31, 57)
    Change (pg/ml)*−3 (−4, +2)+1 (−2, +9)
    Increased ≥3 SDs1 (8)1 (7)
  • Data are median (25th, 75th percentile) or n (%). Total n = 28.

  • *Defined as peak minus baseline.

  • †3 SDs described in research design and methods.

  • ‡Samples for glucagon were drawn only at baseline and at meter glucose value <60 mg/dl. One subject was missing the end draw.