Table 1

Characteristics of participants by baseline diabetes status in the Health ABC Study

Without diabetesUndiagnosed diabetesDiagnosed diabetesP*
n2047226402
Sociodemographic
    Age (years)73.6 ± 2.973.7 ± 2.873.6 ± 2.7NS
    Men (%)47.655.855.5<0.001
    Blacks (%)36.742.057.7<0.001
Body composition
    BMI (kg/m2)26.8 ± 4.628.5 ± 4.829.1 ± 4.7<0.001
    Total body mass (kg)74.2 ± 14.479.9 ± 15.881.2 ± 14.0<0.001
    Total lean mass (kg)45.9 ± 9.849.1 ± 10.350.4 ± 9.3<0.001
        Trunk lean23.1 ± 4.824.8 ± 5.125.3 ± 4.7<0.001
        Appendicular lean19.8 ± 4.921.1 ± 5.121.9 ± 4.6<0.001
    Total fat mass (kg)26.0 ± 8.428.4 ± 9.028.5 ± 8.7<0.001
        Trunk fat12.9 ± 4.614.9 ± 5.315.0 ± 5.0<0.001
        Appendicular fat12.6 ± 4.513.0 ± 4.612.8 ± 4.3NS
Biochemical
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.14 ± 0.526.98 ± 2.198.56 ± 3.26<0.001
    A1C (%)6.0 ± 0.56.9 ± 1.38.0 ± 1.6<0.001
    IL-6 (pg/ml)1.72 (1.17–2.62)2.10 (1.38–3.08)2.16 (1.52–3.19)<0.001
    TNF-α (pg/ml)3.08 (2.38–3.95)3.28 (2.49–4.34)3.46 (2.58–4.42)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, proportions, or median (interquartile range). NS, not significant;

  • *P values from ANOVA or χ2 tests;

  • †Kruskal-Wallis tests.