Table 1

Characteristics of randomized participants at baseline

CharacteristicIntensive glucose and perindopril-indapamideStandard glucose and perindopril-indapamideIntensive glucose and placeboStandard glucose and placebo
n2,7832,7862,7882,783
Age (years)65.8 ± 6.365.8 ± 6.465.7 ± 6.565.8 ± 6.4
Female sex1,198 (43.0)1,168 (41.9)1,181 (42.4)1,188 (42.7)
Age when diabetes first diagnosed (years)57.8 ± 8.557.9 ± 8.957.8 ± 8.757.8 ± 8.8
Diabetes duration (years)8.0 ± 6.48.0 ± 6.47.8 ± 6.38.0 ± 6.3
Prior vascular disease
    History of major macrovascular disease896 (32.2)902 (32.4)898 (32.2)894 (32.1)
        History of myocardial infarction339 (12.2)339 (12.2)329 (11.8)327 (11.7)
        History of stroke254 (9.1)248 (8.9)261 (9.4)259 (9.3)
    History of major microvascular disease281 (10.1)287 (10.3)288 (10.3)296 (10.6)
        History of macroalbuminuria94 (3.5)103 (3.9)93 (3.5)111 (4.2)
        History of microvascular eye disease195 (7.0)194 (7.0)206 (7.4)198 (7.1)
    History of microalbuminuria726 (27.4)715 (26.9)711 (26.7)710 (26.7)
Blood glucose control
    A1C concentration (%)7.5 ± 1.67.6 ± 1.67.5 ± 1.67.5 ± 1.5
    Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l)8.6 ± 2.88.5 ± 2.88.5 ± 2.78.4 ± 2.8
Other major risk factors
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)145.3 ± 22.1144.8 ± 21.6144.6 ± 21.3145.3 ± 21.2
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)80.9 ± 11.180.5 ± 11.080.6 ± 11.080.5 ± 10.7
    Currently treated hypertension1,909 (68.6)1,893 (67.9)1,907 (68.4)1,946 (69.9)
    Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.2 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.2
    Serum LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.1 ± 1.03.1 ± 1.03.1 ± 1.03.1 ± 1.0
    Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.3 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.3
    Serum triglycerides (mmol/l)1.6 (1.2–2.3)1.6 (1.2–2.3)1.6 (1.2–2.4)1.7 (1.2–2.3)
    Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (μg/mg)15 (7–40)15 (7–40)15 (7–39)14 (7–40)
    BMI (kg/m2)28.4 ± 5.128.3 ± 5.328.4 ± 5.228.3 ± 5.1
    Current smoking387 (13.9)346 (12.4)406 (14.6)411 (14.8)
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range).