Table 2

Joint effects of routine blood pressure lowering and intensive glucose control on all clinical outcomes

Randomized treatments
Pinteraction
Intensive glucose and perindopril-indapamideStandard glucose and perindopril-indapamideIntensive glucose and placeboStandard glucose and placebo
n2,7832,7862,7882,783
Primary outcomes
    Combined major microvascular and macrovascular events
        No. events431430440498
        HR (95% CI)0.85 (0.75–0.97)0.85 (0.74–0.96)0.87 (0.77–0.99)1.00 (reference)0.13
    Major microvascular events
        No. events213226217260
        HR (95% CI)0.81 (0.68–0.97)0.85 (0.72–1.02)0.83 (0.69–0.99)1.00 (reference)0.32
    Major macrovascular events
        No. events246234255265
        HR (95% CI)0.92 (0.77–1.10)0.87 (0.73–1.04)0.96 (0.81–1.14)1.00 (reference)0.44
Other outcomes
    Death from any cause
        No. events198210231240
        HR (95% CI)0.82 (0.68–0.99)0.87 (0.72–1.04)0.96 (0.80–1.15)1.00 (reference)0.90
    Death from cardiovascular causes
        No. events104107121136
        HR (95% CI)0.76 (0.59–0.98)0.78 (0.60–1.00)0.89 (0.70–1.14)1.00 (reference)0.62
    Major coronary heart events
        No. events133132139155
        HR (95% CI)0.92 (0.77–1.10)0.87 (0.73–1.04)0.90 (0.71–1.13)1.00 (reference)0.47
    Major cerebrovascular events
        No. events111104111107
        HR (95% CI)1.03 (0.79–1.35)0.96 (0.73–1.26)1.03 (0.79–1.35)1.00 (reference)0.85
    All renal events
        No. events590630686777
        HR (95% CI)0.72 (0.65–081)0.77 (0.69–0.85)0.88 (0.79–0.97)1.00 (reference)0.33
    New or worsening nephropathy
        No. events8110096120
        HR (95% CI)0.67 (0.50–0.88)0.82 (0.63–1.07)0.80 (0.61–1.05)1.00 (reference)0.93
    New or worsening retinopathy
        No. events147142133153
        HR (95% CI)0.96 (0.76–1.20)0.92 (0.73–1.16)0.86 (0.69–1.09)1.00 (reference)0.27
    New onset of microalbuminuria
        No. events525542605673
        HR (95% CI)0.75 (0.67–0.84)0.77 (0.68–0.86)0.90 (0.80–100)1.00 (reference)0.29
    New onset of macroalbuminuria
        No. events44747395
        HR (95% CI)0.46 (0.32–0.65)0.77 (0.56–1.04)0.77 (0.57–1.04)1.00 (reference)0.30