Table 1

Participant characteristics (age-adjusted means and proportions) comparing participants with diabetes and normal control subjects, and, among participants with diabetes, those with and without diabetic retinopathy

Control subjectsDiabetic subjectsP*Diabetic retinopathyNo retinopathyP
Sex (% male)39.441.60.7437.549.20.09
Current smoking (%)
Hypertension (% present)14.256.3<0.00163.842.10.006
Dyslipidemia (% present)7.048.1<0.00149.944.10.46
Age (years)48.056.5<0.00157.454.80.08
Diabetes duration (years)16.218.711.9<0.001
SBP (mmHg)129.5127.10.22128.5124.40.03
DBP (mmHg)80.275.9<0.00175.776.40.55
BMI (kg/m2)26.330.3<0.00130.529.70.38
A1C (%)5.57.9<0.0018.07.70.27
Glucose (mmol/l)5.09.2<0.0019.58.50.07
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.44.6<0.0014.64.70.28
Triglyceride (mmol/l)
Dynamic retinal vessel dilation
    Maximal arteriolar dilation3.331.50<0.0011.211.810.006
    Maximal venular dilation3.912.88<0.0012.573.210.003
Static retinal vessel diameter
    CRAE (μm)146.0149.80.007150.8149.40.35
    CRVE (μm)220.7222.20.52225.8218.90.006
  • Data are means unless stated otherwise. Means and proportions are adjusted for age (set to mean age of 53.8 years old), except for age.

  • *Comparing those with diabetic subjects and normal control subjects, adjusted for age.

  • †Comparing those with and without diabetic retinopathy in those with diabetes, adjusted for age. CRAE, central retinal arteriolar equivalent; CRVE, central retinal venular equivalent.