Table 3

Associations between reduced flicker-induced arteriolar and venular dilation and diabetes

Dynamic flicker-induced dilation
n*TertilesRange (%)%Model 1PModel 2PModel 3P
    173Lowest≤0.689.012.6 (5.54–28.7)<0.00119.7 (6.53–59.1)<0.00119.5 (6.30–60.2)<0.001
    182Middle0.7–2.976.97.76 (3.75–16.1)<0.00111.2 (4.29–29.3)<0.00111.16 (4.22–29.5)<0.001
    178Highest≥ (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
    178Lowest≤ (2.19–9.96)<0.0018.14 (3.09–21.4)<0.0018.03 (3.05–21.2)<0.001
    177Middle2.2–3.767.81.17 (0.64–2.14)0.621.43 (0.66–3.13)0.371.40 (0.64–3.08)0.40
    182Highest≥3.856.01.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
  • Data are ORs (95% CI) unless indicated otherwise. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and fasting blood glucose level. Model 2: adjusted for covariates in model 1 plus diabetes duration, use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications, current smoking status, SBP, and fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Model 3: adjusted for covariates in model 2 plus static retinal arteriolar or venular diameter.

  • *n indicates number of eyes.