Table 4

Associations between reduced flicker-induced arteriolar and venular dilation and diabetic retinopathy

Dynamic flicker-induced dilation
Diabetic retinopathy
n*TertilesRange (%)%Model 1PModel 2PModel 3P
Arteriolar
    121Lowest≤0.360.32.52 (1.46–4.36)0.0012.19 (1.19–4.03)0.012.02 (1.09, 3.74)0.03
    127Middle0.4–1.855.91.92 (1.13–3.27)0.021.88 (1.04–3.41)0.041.81 (0.99, 3.31)0.05
    127Highest≥1.943.31.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
Venular
    120Lowest≤1.767.53.14 (1.82–5.45)<0.0012.45 (1.33–4.49)0.0042.41 (1.30, 4.67)0.005
    122Middle1.8–3.353.31.54 (0.91–2.60)0.111.33 (0.75–2.38)0.331.36 (0.75, 2.44)0.31
    134Highest≥3.439.61.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
  • Data are ORs (95% CI) unless indicated otherwise. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and fasting blood glucose level. Model 2: adjusted for covariates in model 1 plus diabetes duration, use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications, current smoking status, SBP, and fasting cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Model 3: adjusted for covariates in model 2 plus static retinal arteriolar or venular diameter.

  • *n indicates number of eyes.