Table 1

Relationship between retinal vascular Df and incident diabetic retinopathy

Retinal vascular DfnIncidence per 100 person-yearsModel 1*
Model 2
Model 3
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Right eye only
    Quartile 1 (≤1.4497)13210.71.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
    Quartile 2 (1.4498–1.4628)1329.10.84 (0.56–1.26)0.390.80 (0.52–1.21)0.290.82 (0.53–1.26)0.36
    Quartile 3 (1.4629–1.4738)13210.40.97 (0.65–1.46)0.890.95 (0.62–1.45)0.800.97 (0.63–1.49)0.88
    Quartile 4 (≥1.4739)13310.30.95 (0.63–1.45)0.820.90 (0.58–1.40)0.640.93 (0.60–1.45)0.75
    Ptrend0.840.750.82
Right and left eyes combined§
    Quartile 1 (≤1.4471)27910.81.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)1.00 (Ref)
    Quartile 2 (1.4472–1.4598)2789.30.89 (0.67–1.18)0.410.88 (0.65–1.19)0.410.90 (0.66–1.21)0.47
    Quartile 3 (1.4599–1.4730)26610.30.98 (0.74–1.30)0.890.98 (0.73–1.32)0.880.99 (0.73–1.33)0.93
    Quartile 4 (≥1.4731)2579.50.91 (0.67–1.22)0.520.92 (0.68–1.26)0.920.95 (0.69–1.30)0.74
    Ptrend0.820.840.89
  • *Model 1 adjusted for age and sex.

  • †Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, mean arterial blood pressure, BMI, and total cholesterol.

  • ‡Model 3 adjusted for variables in model 2 as well as central retinal arteriolar equivalent and central retinal venular equivalent.

  • §Analysis performed using the generalized estimation equation model.