Table 1—

Percent of fatty acids (mg/100 mg fatty acids) in plasma of control (n = 30) and GDM (n = 15) pregnant women at cesarean section delivery and in their respective cord blood

Maternal veinUmbilical veinUmbilical arteryP
Palmitic acid (16:0)
    Control27.3 ± 0.425.4 ± 1.126.5 ± 1.6NS
    GDM27.8 ± 0.5ab25.4 ± 1.7a31.6 ± 2.6b0.0384
Stearic acid (18:0)
    Control7.00 ± 0.49a19.8 ± 1.9b16.3 ± 2.1b0.0000
    GDM6.83 ± 0.64a19.8 ± 2.9b13.2 ± 2.1ab0.0001
Total SFAs
    Control36.2 ± 0.5a47.1 ± 1.1b44.7 ± 1.1b0.0000
    GDM36.4 ± 0.7a47.2 ± 2.0b46.6 ± 1.9b0.0000
Palmitoleic acid (16:1 n-7)
    Control3.24 ± 0.153.62 ± 0.293.77 ± 0.33NS
    GDM2.73 ± 0.21a3.93 ± 0.47ab4.04 ± 0.69b0.0026
Oleic acid (18:1 n-9)
    Control26.6 ± 0.6a19.4 ± 0.5b18.4 ± 0.9b0.0000
    GDM25.9 ± 0.8a20.4 ± 1.0b20.6 ± 1.4b0.0002
Total MUFAs
    Control30.4 ± 0.6a24.5 ± 0.7b23.4 ± 1.1b0.0000
    GDM29.3 ± 0.925.8 ± 1.527.5 ± 1.5NS
Linoleic acid (18:2 n-6)
    Control22.6 ± 0.7a7.81 ± 0.30b9.32 ± 0.93b0.0000
    GDM23.1 ± 1.0a7.63 ± 0.40b7.73 ± 0.68b0.0000
Eicosatrienoic acid (20:3 n-6)
    Control1.40 ± 0.12a2.47 ± 0.19b2.39 ± 0.28b0.0001
    GDM1.25 ± 0.13a2.32 ± 0.11b2.11 ± 0.34b0.0002
AA (20:4 n-6)
    Control5.11 ± 0.20a12.2 ± 0.3b12.3 ± 0.5b0.0000
    GDM5.67 ± 0.20a11.4 ± 0.8b10.2 ± 0.8b*0.0000
Total n-6 fatty acids
    Control29.7 ± 0.8a23.6 ± 0.6b26.1 ± 0.9b0.0000
    GDM30.6 ± 1.0a22.5 ± 1.2b22.4 ± 1.6b*0.0000
α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3)
    Control0.413 ± 0.060NDND
    GDM0.354 ± 0.064NDND
DHA (22:6 n-3)
    Control2.44 ± 0.11a3.99 ± 0.16b4.32 ± 0.19b0.0000
    GDM2.76 ± 0.20a3.96 ± 0.32b3.15 ± 0.31ab0.0083
Total n-3 fatty acids
    Control3.64 ± 0.15a5.15 ± 0.43b5.69 ± 0.41b0.0006
    GDM3.94 ± 3.494.55 ± 0.373.57 ± 0.30NS
Total PUFAs
    Control33.6 ± 0.8a28.8 ± 0.7b31.8 ± 1.1a0.0004
    GDM34.6 ± 0.9a27.1 ± 1.2b25.9 ± 1.7b0.0000
  • Data are means ± SEM. Tukey's test was used to determine differences between maternal, umbilical venous, and arterial plasma after one-way ANOVA. Different letters in a row indicate significant differences. The difference between GDM and control values were significantly different at

  • * P < 0.05 and

  • P < 0.01 by Student's t test. Total SFAs, sum of 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 20:0, 22:0, 23:0, and 24:0. Total MUFAs, sum of 16:1, 18:1, and 20:1. Total n-6 fatty acids, sum of 18:2, 18:3, 20:2, 20:3, 20:4, 22:2, 22:4, and 22:5. Total n-3 fatty acids, sum of 18:3, 20:3, 20:5, 22:3, 22:5, and 22:6. Total PUFAs, sum of total n-6 plus n-3. MUFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids; SFAs, saturated fatty acids.