Table 1

Baseline patient characteristics by group status and trial site

VUMC
UNC
Overall
ControlInterventionControlInterventionControlIntervention
n535246479999
Age (years)45 (31−59)49.5 (41−57)56 (51−60)53 (48.5−58.5)53 (40−59.5)52 (45−59)
Men (%)384033343537
African American (%)212972574442
Income <$20,000/year (%)253367724552
Education ≤12th grade (%)373361674849
Private insurance (%)747526235251
Type 2 diabetes (%)7490*1001008695*
Years of diabetes diagnosis6 (1−12)6.5 (2−12.3)9 (5−14.8)8 (4.5−16)8 (3−13)8 (3−15)
Monitor blood glucose ≤ 1 time/day (%)253549393637
Insulin use (%)605078706959
    Insulin >2 times/day32 (69)26 (77)36 (42)35 (40)68 (54)61 (55)
    Adjusts insulin for blood glucose30 (70)26 (73)35 (17)36 (22)65 (42)62 (44)
    Adjusts insulin for carbohydrates30 (43)26 (31)34 (0)35 (0)64 (20)61 (13)
Yes, hypoglycemic episodes in the prior month (%)3025061616
Previous diabetes education (%)626976746971
Tobacco use (%)212726282327
BMI (kg/m2)34.4 (27.2−40.1)34.4 (30.1−39.1)35.6 (31.7−41.3)36.9 (29.9−40.6)35.5 (30.2−41.3)35.2 (29.9−40.0)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138 (126−144)133 (119−142)131 (121−150)142 (126−150)136 (123−146)136 (121−146)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 (72−84)76 (70−85)72.5 (68−82)77 (69−84)76 (69−83)76 (69.5−84.5)
REALM score [0–66]65 (62−66)64 (62−65)59 (44−65)54 (39−64)63 (57−66)63 (46−65)
REALM score <9th grade level (%)191854623539
Diabetes numeracy test score (%)83 (65−90)69 (44−84)†33 (13−51)33 (13−70)60 (36−86)55 (21.5−81)
Self-efficacy: PDSMS (8−40)24.0 (22.0−27.0)24.5 (20.3−28.8)26.0 (23.0−33.0)24.0 (19.5−30.0)25.0 (22.0−29.5)24.0 (20.0−29.0)
Satisfaction: DTSQ (0–36)27.5 (21.0−32.0)29.0 (26.0−33.0)31.5 (26.0−34.8)30.0 (26.0−32.5)29.0 (23.3−34.0)29.5 (26.0−33.0)
A1C (%) baseline8.6 (7.3−9.7)8.5 (7.5−10.7)9.8 (8.5−10.3)9.2 (8.6−10.9)9.1 (7.6−10.2)9.1 (7.8−10.8)
  • Data are %, n (%), or median (interquartile range). *P < 0.05 comparing intervention vs. control by either χ2 or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, as appropriate. DTSQ, Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire; PDSMS, Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale.