Table 1

Characteristics of 20 cohort studies included in the analyses

First author (year of publication)LocationSexAge at baseline (years)nFollow-up
Alcohol consumption
Diabetes definitionAdjustments
Duration (years)Events (no.)No. categoriesDescription
Ajani (2000)U.S.Men40–8520,95112.77666No. of drinks: rarely/never, 1–3/month, 1/week, 2–4/week, 5–6/week, or ≥1/daySelf-report (physician participants)Age, BMI, treatment assignment, smoking status, and physical activity
Beulens (2005)The NetherlandsWomen49–7016,3306.27607g/week: teetotaler, 0–4.9, 5–29.9, 30–69.9, 70–139.9, 140–209.9, or ≥210Self-report and/or urinary glucose strip and/or Dutch register of hospital discharge diagnosisAge and BMI
Carlsson (2003)FinlandMenNot reported10,97019.42774g/day: abstainers, <5.0, 5.0–29.9, or ≥30.0Linkage to Finnish national hospital discharge register and national drug register; patients who received only oral medication, dietary therapy, or insulin as an adjuvant treatment to hypoglycemic drugs were categorized as type 2 diabeticAge and BMI
WomenNot reported11,80819.82974g/day: abstainers, <5.0, 5.0–19.9, or ≥20.0
Conigrave (2001)U.S.Men40–7546,89210.91,5717g/day: 0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, 10.0–14.9, 15.0–29.9, 30.0–49.9, or ≥50.0Self-report; criteria: any of 1) one or more classic symptoms with FPG ≥7.8 mmol/l, nonfasting glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l, or OGTT ≥11.1 mmol/l, 2) elevated plasma glucose levels on two different occasions, 3) hypoglycemia treatment (but not type 1 diabetic)Age and BMI
de Vegt (2002)The NetherlandsMen and women combined50–751,322Not reported2413g/day: 0, <10, or ≥10FPG ≥7.0 mmol/l or OGTT ≥11.1 mmol/l; or subjects already being treated for diabetesAge and sex
Djoussé (2007)U.S.Men64–951,9096.31094Drinks/week: never, former, <1, 1–7, or ≥7Use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents; or FPG ≥7.0 mmolAge, BMI, education, and smoking status
Women63–952,7466.31254Drinks/week: never, former, <1, 1–7, or ≥7
Hodge (2006)AustraliaMen40–6912,21441795g/day: never drinker, former drinker, <10, 10–20, 20–30, or >30Participants mailed questionnaire covering diagnosis of diabetes, with verification from primary care physicianAge, BMI, country of birth, dietary glucose intake, dietary energy intake, and waist-to-hip ratio
Women40–6919,20841834g/day: never drinker, former drinker, <10, 10–20, or >20
Holbrook (1990)U.S.Men40–7922114314g/week: nondrinker, 0.1–84.3, 84.4–176.0, or ≥176.1FPG ≥140 mg/dl, OGTT ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l), or self-report of diabetes diagnosis by a physicianAge
Women40–7930314444g/week: nondrinker, 0.1–41.3, 41.4–117.4, or ≥117.5
Hu (2006)FinlandMen35–7410,18813.45173g/week: none, 1–100, or >100Linkage of info in Finnish national hospital discharge register and national drug registerAge; BMI; study year; education; systolic blood pressure; bread, vegetable, fruit, sausage, coffee, and tea consumption; smoking status; and physical activity
Women35–7411,19713.44473g/week: none, 1–100, or >100
Kao (2001)U.S.Men45–645,4235.35476Drinks/week: lifetime abstainer, former drinker, ≤1, 1.1–7, 7.1–14, 14.1–21, or ≥21Any of 1) FPG ≥7.0 mmol, 2) nonfasting glucose ≥11.1 mmol, 3) current use of diabetic medications, or 4) positive response to “Has a doctor ever told you that you had diabetes?”None
Women45–646,8385.45696Drinks/week: lifetime abstainer, former drinker, ≤1, 1.1–7, 7.1–14, 14.1–21, or ≥21
Lee (2003)KoreaMen25–554,0554835g/week: abstainer, 1–90, 91–180, 181–360 g, or >360 gSerum fasting glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dl or taking diabetes medicationNone
Lee (2004)U.S.Women55–6935,698111,9213g/day: 0, 1–14, or ≥15Self-reportNone
Meisinger (2002)GermanyMen35–743,0527.51283g/day: 0, 0.1–39.9, or ≥40.0Self-report diagnosis or taking antidiabetes medicationsAge, BMI, and survey
Women35–743,1147.6853g/day: 0, 0.1–19.9, or ≥20.0
Stampfer (1988)U.S.Women34–5985,05145245g/day: 0, <1.5, 1.5–4.9, 5.0–14.9, or ≥15.0Self-report by questionnaire, then supplementary questionnaire regarding classic symptoms with FPG ≥140 mg/dl or random plasma glucose ≥200 mg/dl (or at least two elevated plasma glucose levels if no symptoms)Age, BMI, and caloric intake
Strodl (2006)AustraliaWomen70–748,89632313Drinks/day: none or rarely, 1–2, or ≥3Asked whether a doctor had told them they had a diagnosis of diabetesNone
Tsumura (1999)JapanMen35–616,3629.74565ml/day: abstainer, 0.1–19.0, 19.1–29.0, 29.1–50.0, or ≥50.1FPG ≥7.8 mmol/l, OGTT ≥11.1 mmol/l, or FPG ≥7.0 mmol/lAge, BMI, smoking status, leisure time physical activity, parental diabetes, and FPG level
Waki (2004)JapanMen40–5912,913Not reported7034g/day: abstainer and infrequent drinker, ≤23.0, 23.1–46.0, or ≥46.1Self-report “Has a doctor ever told you that you have diabetes?”Age, BMI, smoking status, family history of diabetes, leisure time physical activity, and hypertension
Women40–5915,980Not reported4804g/day: abstainer and infrequent drinker, ≤4.9, 5.0–11.5, or ≥11.6
Wannamethee (2002)U.K.Men40–595,22116.81985Units/week: none, <1, 1–15, 15–42, or >42Diagnosis of diabetes not accepted on basis of self-completed questionnaire unless confirmed in primary care recordsAge and BMI
Wannamethee (2003)U.S.Women25–42109,7058.19355g/day: lifelong abstainer, former drinker, <5.0, 5.0–14.9, 15.0–29.9, or ≥30.0Report on biennial questionnaire, then supplementary questionnaire regarding symptoms: before 1997 1) ≥1 classic symptoms and FPG ≥7.8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l, 2) ≥2 elevated plasma glucose results on different occasions (FPG ≥7.8 mmol/l, random plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l, and/or OGTT ≥11.1 mmol/l in absence of symptoms), or 3) treatment with hypoglycemia medicationsAge
Wei (2000)U.S.Men30–798,63361495g/week: abstainer, 1–61.8, 61.9–122.7, 122.8–276.6, or >276.6FPG ≥7.0 mmol/l or history of diabetes plus current insulin therapyAge, parental diabetes, and years of follow-up