Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study population

Control/T2DMControl/T2DM+CD/T2DMCD/T2DM+
n30302832
FGF21 (ng/l)195.1 ± 239.9207.6 ± 384.13,825.1 ± 5,593.93,593.8 ± 6,562.2
Age (years)63 ± 1963 ± 1659 ± 2368 ± 12
Sex (M/F)11/1916/1415/1320/12
BMI (kg/m2)28.2 ± 5.629.1 ± 5.225.2 ± 6.5*27.9 ± 6.6
Waist-to-hip ratio0.88 ± 0.120.94 ± 0.10*0.96 ± 0.181.00 ± 0.14*
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)125 ± 21126 ± 20125 ± 38120 ± 25
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77 ± 1073 ± 1577 ± 2070 ± 18
Creatinine (μmol/l)76 ± 1772 ± 22829 ± 431*717 ± 221*
Albumin (g/l)46.2 ± 3.746.5 ± 3.441.6 ± 4.9*41.3 ± 4.9*
Urea (mmol/l)5.1 ± 1.55.3 ± 2.117.1 ± 7.4*18.7 ± 7.9*
GFR (ml/min)82.5 ± 23.989.3 ± 35.57.0 ± 4.0*7.6 ± 3.2*
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.1 ± 1.37.6 ± 3.2*4.6 ± 1.25.2 ± 3.3
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)45.1 ± 33.347.9 ± 62.628.2 ± 47.650.1 ± 91.6
HOMA-IR1.4 ± 1.22.8 ± 3.00.8 ± 1.41.4 ± 3.3
Free fatty acid (mmol/l)0.5 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.40.6 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.5
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.3 ± 0.94.9 ± 1.54.4 ± 1.1*4.2 ± 1.3*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.41.2 ± 0.51.0 ± 0.5*1.0 ± 0.3*
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.5 ± 1.12.9 ± 0.912.7 ± 0.9*2.1 ± 1.4*
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.1 ± 0.81.4 ± 0.91.6 ± 0.9*1.8 ± 1.4*
Adiponectin (mg/l)6.8 ± 3.84.6 ± 4.814.3 ± 15.7*11.4 ± 12.6*
Leptin (μg/l)17.8 ± 25.416.8 ± 22.311.4 ± 35.128.0 ± 54.4
C-reactive peptide (mg/l)2.5 ± 4.42.8 ± 3.83.5 ± 11.96.9 ± 24.7*
  • Data are median ± interquartile range. The groups are divided into control subjects without diabetes (control/T2DM) or with diabetes (control/T2DM+) and CD patients without diabetes (CD/T2DM) or with diabetes (CD/T2DM+). HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Bonferroni's post hoc analysis.

  • * P < 0.05 vs. Control/T2DM,

  • P < 0.05 vs. Control/T2DM+,

  • P < 0.05 vs. CD/T2DM.