Table 1—

Characteristics of the subjects according to the severity of fatty liver

NormalMildModerateP
n427861
Age (years)53.4 ± 10.554.0 ± 9.355.2 ± 11.80.7
Sex (male %)64.357.745.90.2
Hypertension (%)52.434.644.10.2
Current smoker (%)26.223.111.50.1
PPARγ agonists use (%)9.55.18.20.6
Insulin use (%)7.15.11.60.4
ARB and ACEi use (%)40.521.823.00.06
Statins use (%)21.412.819.70.4
Diabetes duration (years)6.7 ± 6.04.6 ± 4.74.6 ± 6.30.1
Systolic BP (mmHg)129.6 ± 21.1131.5 ± 13.7134.8 ± 17.20.3
Diastolic BP (mmHg)75.4 ± 15.077.1 ± 8.278.7 ± 11.60.4
BMI (kg/m2)24.0 ± 2.325.3 ± 3.3*27.1 ± 3.4<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)84.8 ± 8.088.1 ± 7.5*91.2 ± 8.7<0.001
    Male85.8 ± 7.188.6 ± 6.792.7 ± 6.70.001
    Female83.1 ± 9.487.4 ± 8.591.8 ± 10.10.01
WHR0.91 ± 0.060.93 ± 0.05*0.94 ± 0.050.003
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)180.3 ± 34.4193.4 ± 39.5190.3 ± 39.10.2
Triglycerides (mg/dl)149.4 ± 101.8182.0 ± 115.1186.7 ± 83.40.2
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)50.0 ± 13.148.0 ± 12.147.8 ± 8.80.6
    Male48.8 ± 9.446.6 ± 10.248.1 ± 8.70.6
    Female52.1 ± 18.349.4 ± 14.447.5 ± 8.90.5
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)104.9 ± 30.8112.4 ± 36.6111.5 ± 33.70.5
AST (units/l)20.5 ± 6.524.9 ± 10.233.8 ± 19.2‡<0.001
ALT (units/l)23.5 ± 10.232.6 ± 22.6*42.6 ± 24.7<0.001
GGT (units/l)27.8 ± 18.542.0 ± 35.9*52.1 ± 41.90.003
A-FABP total (μg/l)13.9 ± 10.115.9 ± 10.124.7 ± 17.9<0.001
    Male12.3 ± 9.013.6 ± 10.215.9 ± 6.60.3
    Female16.7 ± 11.619.1 ± 9.332.2 ± 20.90.001
RBP-4 total (μg/ml)72.7 ± 28.774.1 ± 32.672.1 ± 26.10.9
    Male76.2 ± 23.383.3 ± 38.177.8 ± 23.60.6
    Female66.3 ± 36.561.6 ± 17.067.3 ± 27.50.7
Adiponectin total (μg/ml)5.0 ± 2.24.1 ± 2.6*3.8 ± 2.30.03
    Male5.1 ± 2.23.5 ± 2.02.7 ± 1.2‡<0.001
    Female5.0 ± 2.34.9 ± 3.24.7 ± 2.50.9
CRP (mg/l)1.50 ± 2.502.39 ± 4.463.60 ± 4.66*0.04
FPG (mg/dl)207.9 ± 142.5180.0 ± 68.8174.5 ± 58.50.2
Fasting insulin (μU/ml)6.4 ± 6.77.5 ± 6.111.1 ± 8.20.001
HOMA-IR3.1 ± 3.53.1 ± 2.34.6 ± 3.6*0.01
A1C (%)8.9 ± 2.78.2 ± 2.28.8 ± 2.00.2
24-h albumin (mg/day)40.3 ± 45.131.4 ± 38.630.3 ± 40.60.5
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)0.87 ± 0.280.78 ± 0.17*0.80 ± 0.180.07
Metabolic syndrome (n [%])17 (41.5)55 (71.4)47 (77.0)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, unless indicated otherwise. P value: the difference among three groups using ANOVA test.

  • * P < 0.05 compared with normal.

  • P < 0.01 compared with normal.

  • P < 0.001 compared with normal. ACEi, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blockers; ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; BP, blood pressure; FPG, fasting plasma glucose; GGT, γ-glutamyltransferase.