Table 1

Description of the study population; the HUNT 2 study

Nondiabetic subjects*Diabetic subjects without an HFU*Diabetic subjects with an HFU*PP
n63,6321,339155
Demographic characteristics
    Age (years)49.7 ± 17.365.6 ± 13.667.2 ± 14.0<0.0010.157
    Male sex (%)46.749.756.80.0120.097
    Single (%)40.138.145.80.1500.064
    Education (≥10 years) (%)64.037.733.8<0.0010.367
Lifestyle characteristics
    BMI (kg/m2)26.3 ± 4.128.9 ± 4.829.3 ± 5.3<0.0010.396
    Waist circumference (cm)86.2 ± 11.695.0 ± 12.098.2 ± 12.3<0.0010.002
    Physical activity <1 h/week (%)19.827.537.2<0.0010.026
    Current smokers (%)29.016.811.1<0.0010.070
Cardiovascular disease status
    Self-reported stroke (%)1.85.012.2<0.001<0.001
    Self-reported myocardial infarction (%)3.012.615.3<0.0010.345
    Self-reported angina pectoris (%)4.618.522.0<0.0010.307
    Hypertension23.956.457.4<0.0010.81
Subgroups of diabetes
    Type 1 (%)16.926.0
    Type 2 (%)83.174.0
Diabetes-specific variables
    A1C (% units)8.1 ± 1.78.4 ± 2.00.015
    Insulin use (%)31.843.50.004
Microalbuminuria§27.340.00.001
    Duration of diabetes (years) (median)6.010.00.001
    Peripheral vascular surgery (%)2.710.7<0.001
    Eye problems due to diabetes (%)11.924.8<0.001
    Any lower limb amputations (%)0.75.2<0.001
Psychological assessment
    HADS-D score (0–21)3.5 ± 3.14.3 (SD 3.4)4.7 (SD 3.6)<0.0010.180
    HADS-D (score ≥8) (%)10.817.118.80.0020.614
    HADS-D (score ≥11) (%)3.26.07.60.0020.439
  • Data are means ± SD or %. *Sample sizes vary somewhat depending on the actual completion of the different tests and questionnaires.

  • †Significance of the t test or χ2 test for difference between participants with a history of diabetic foot ulcers and those without diabetes.

  • ‡Significance of the t test or χ2 test for difference between participants with and without a history of diabetic foot ulcer.

  • §Microalbuminuria was defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio >2.5 mg/mmol in at least two of three urine samples.