Table 2—

All-cause mortality associated with metabolic syndrome and its components in all subjects and stratified by sex

OverallP valueMenP valueWomenP value
Deaths (%)
    MS−17.522.912.8
    MS+19.123.117.6
Rate per 1,000 person-years*
    MS−39.8053.6428.43
    MS+44.270.00054.930.60340.500.000
Model
    Adjusted for age and sex1.30 (1.11–1.54)0.0011.26 (0.99–1.60)0.0641.33 (1.06–1.68)0.015
    + education and socioeconomic status1.38 (1.14–1.64)0.0011.21 (0.93–1.57)0.1581.53 (1.18–2.00)0.001
    + smoking and physical activity1.35 (1.13–1.63)0.0011.20 (0.92–1.56)0.1721.51 (1.16–1.97)0.003
    + major diseases and BMI1.42 (1.15–1.75)0.0011.38 (1.01–1.87)0.0411.49 (1.10–1.99)0.008
    + albumin and LDL cholesterol1.41 (1.14–1.75)0.0011.41 (1.04–1.91)0.0291.48 (1.09–2.01)0.013
All components together as covariates
    High blood pressure (versus not)0.93 (0.71–1.23)0.6170.95 (0.65–1.38)§0.7861.03 (0.69–1.54)§0.890
    High triglycerides (versus not)0.97 (0.77–1.23)0.7901.10 (0.79–1.52)§0.5760.83 (0.60–1.15)§0.268
    Low HDL cholesterol (versus not)1.24 (0.97–1.58)0.0841.04 (0.70–1.54)§0.8601.48 (1.08–2.02)§0.014
    Increased waist circumference (versus not)0.97 (0.74–1.26)0.8030.88 (0.60–1.30)§0.5281.13 (0.78–1.62)§0.524
    High glucose (versus not)1.27 (1.02–1.59)0.0371.01 (0.74–1.38)§0.9591.61 (1.16–2.24)§0.005
  • Data are HR (95% CI) computed by Cox proportional regression models unless indicated otherwise.

  • * Mortality rate per 1,000 person-years weighted data. Major diseases include angina, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary and kidney diseases, cancer and/or cognitive impairment.

  • Model adjusted only for age.

  • Model adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, major diseases, BMI, albumin, LDL cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome (as proxy for the interactions of the individual factors).

  • § Model adjusted for age, smoking, physical activity, major diseases, BMI, albumin, LDL cholesterol, and metabolic syndrome (as proxy for the interactions of the individual factors). MS−, without metabolic syndrome; MS+, with metabolic syndrome.