Table 2

Results of unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models for all-cause mortality in diabetic participants without an HFU compared with nondiabetic participants and diabetic participants with a history of HFU compared with the nondiabetic population (models 1 and 2) and in diabetic participants with an HFU compared with those without an HFU (models 3–5)

UnadjustedModel 1Model 2UnadjustedModel 3Model 4Model 5
n64,109*64,10964,1091,4351,4351,4351,435
Nondiabetic subjectsRef.Ref.Ref.
Diabetes without an HFU4.21 (3.83–4.62)1.70 (1.54–1.86)1.62 (1.48–1.78)Ref.Ref.Ref.Ref.
Diabetes with an HFU6.80 (5.40–8.55)2.29 (1.82–2.88)2.20 (1.75–2.77)1.68 (1.31–2.16)1.47 (1.14–1.89)1.46 (1.14–1.89)1.41 (1.09–1.82)
Age (years)1.12 (1.11–1.12)1.12 (1.12–1.12)1.11 (1.11–1.12)1.10 (1.09–1.11)1.11 (1.09–1.12)1.10 (1.09–1.11)1.10 (1.09–1.11)
Male sex1.41 (1.35–1.48)1.74 (1.66–1.83)1.67 (1.58–1.75)1.05 (0.88–1.25)1.49 (1.23–1.79)1.46 (1.20–1.76)1.44 (1.18–1.74)
Education (<10 years)§4.08 (3.86–4.32)1.10 (1.04–1.17)1.08 (1.02–1.14)1.93 (1.55–2.39)0.98 (0.78–1.22)0.94 (0.75–1.19)0.98 (0.78–1.24)
Current smoking0.85 (0.80–090)1.64 (1.54–1.73)1.64 (1.55–1.74)1.09 (0.87–1.37)1.80 (1.42–2.27)1.76 (1.39–2.23)1.75 (1.38–2.22)
Waist circumference >102 or 88 cm§1.97 (1.87–2.01)1.14 (1.08–1.20)1.12 (1.06–1.18)1.17 (0.98–1.39)1.16 (0.96–1.39)1.11 (0.92–1.33)1.13 (0.94–1.35)
Cardiovascular disease6.38 (6.06–6.73)1.56 (1.48–1.65)2.56 (2.15–3.04)1.53 (1.28–1.83)1.50 (1.25–1.80)
Depression (score ≥8)§2.32 (2.18–2.47)1.35 (1.27–1.44)1.49 (1.20–1.86)1.37 (1.10–1.72)1.35 (1.08–1.69)
Microalbuminuria§2.34 (1.96–2.81)1.55 (1.25–1.82)
A1C1.11 (1.06–1.16)1.07 (1.02–1.13)
Insulin use1.02 (0.85–1.23)1.37 (1.13–1.66)
  • Data are HR (95% CI). *n = 64,109 (62,623 = nondiabetic participants, 1,333 = participants with diabetes without an HFU, and 153 = participants with diabetes with an HFU).

  • n = 1,435 distributed as n = 1,290 (diabetes without an HFU) and n = 145 (diabetes with an HFU).

  • ‡Reference category.

  • §Unknown cases entered as separate category.

  • ‖Known angina, stroke, or myocardial infarction, as reported at baseline.

  • ¶Albumin-to-creatinine ratio >2.5 mg/mmol in at least two of the three urine samples was used to define microalbuminuria.