Table 3—

Cardiovascular mortality associated with metabolic syndrome and its components in all subjects and stratified by sex

OverallP valueMenP valueWomenP value
Deaths (%)
    MS−6.46.46.4
    MS+8.07.58.1
Rate per 1,000 person-years*
    MS−14.4514.8414.13
    MS+18.370.00017.780.02918.570.000
Model
    Adjusted for age and sex1.36 (1.03–1.78)0.0291.51 (0.98–2.33)0.0601.27 (0.90–1.79)0.183
    + smoking, LDL cholesterol, BMI, and physical activity1.60 (1.17–2.19)0.0031.66 (1.00–2.76)0.0511.60 (1.06–2.33)0.025
    + education and socioeconomic status1.69 (1.19–2.39)0.0031.66 (0.89–3.11)0.1141.74 (1.08–2.80)0.022
    + diabetes1.51 (1.03–2.20)0.0331.86 (0.95–3.77)0.0721.31 (0.76–2.27)0.337
All components together as covariates§
    High blood pressure (versus not)0.99 (0.61–1.60)0.9690.85 (0.44–1.65)0.6271.51 (0.70–3.23)0.290
    High triglycerides (versus not)0.87 (0.59–1.29)0.4931.37 (0.75–2.51)0.3120.66 (0.39–1.11)0.115
    Low HDL cholesterol (versus not)1.19 (0.80–1.77)0.3850.77 (0.38–1.42)0.4731.78 (1.07–2.95)0.026
    Increased waist circumference (versus not)0.98 (0.63–1.51)0.9140.71 (0.35–1.42)0.3281.26 (0.70–2.28)0.439
    High glucose (versus not)1.39 (0.97–2.00)0.0750.87 (0.49–1.55)0.6342.17 (1.28–3.68)0.004
  • Data are HR (95% CI) computed by Cox proportional regression models unless indicated otherwise.

  • * Mortality rate per 1,000 person-years weighted data.

  • Model adjusted only for age.

  • Positive criteria for diabetes (previous physician diagnosis or fasting plasma glucose ≥26 mg/dl).

  • § Model adjusted for age, sex, smoking, LDL cholesterol, BMI, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome (as proxy for the interactions of the individual factors).

  • Model adjusted for age, smoking, LDL cholesterol, BMI, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome (as proxy for the interactions of the individual factors).