Table 1

Baseline (1991) characteristics according to the frequencies of SSB consumption in 13,475 women

SSB consumptionP
0–3 servings/month1–4 servings/week≥5 servings/week
n (%)5,584 (41.4)3,675 (27.3)4,216 (31.3)
Age (years)31.9 (3.3)31.5 (3.3)31.0 (3.2)<0.001
Ethnicity (%)
    Caucasian95.194.393.6
    African American0.50.71.3
    Hispanic1.51.31.3
    Asian1.41.72.0
    Others1.52.01.7<0.001
Husband's education (%)
    High school or less15.618.119.5
    College44.747.850.4
    Graduate school39.734.130.1<0.001
Family history of diabetes (%)13.811.311.0<0.001
Nulliparous (%)56.161.762.3<0.001
Current smoking (%)8.37.510.6<0.001
Alcohol consumption (g/day)3.7 ± 5.53.0 ± 5.02.6 ± 4.8<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)23.6 ± 4.323.3 ± 3.123.3 ± 4.3<0.001
Physical activity (h/week)25.4 ± 30.422.0 ± 26.521.0 ± 28.1<0.001
Dietary factors (per day)
    Total calories (kcal)1,662 ± 5041,804 ± 5002,053 ± 544<0.001
    Carbohydrate (% energy)48.9 ± 7.450.0 ± 6.553.6 ± 6.7<0.001
    Protein (% energy)20.3 ± 3.419.9 ± 2.417.6 ± 2.9<0.001
    Total fat (% energy)31.3 ± 5.831.4 ± 5.229.9 ± 5.1<0.001
    Glycemic index*52.9 ± 3.353.8 ± 2.955.6 ± 2.7<0.001
    GL*1.2 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.2<0.001
    Total fiber (g)*19.7 ± 6.018.1 ± 4.717.2 ± 4.3<0.001
    Magnesium (mg)*338.4 ± 75.8323.8 ± 67.7287.7 ± 63.8<0.001
    Potassium (mg)*3,032 ± 5122,909 ± 4502,661 ± 454<0.001
    Calcium (mg)*1,125 ± 4411,118 ± 419978 ± 387<0.001
    Vitamin C (mg)*260.2 ± 311.1243.8 ± 254.5232.6 ± 229.9<0.001
    Vitamin E (mg)*37.7 ± 110.035.4 ± 102.727.9 ± 79.3<0.001
    Fruits (servings)1.3 ± 1.01.2 ± 0.91.1 ± 0.9<0.001
    Vegetables (servings)3.4 ± 2.13.1 ± 1.82.9 ± 1.7<0.001
    Processed meat (servings)0.9 ± 1.11.2 ± 1.21.4 ± 1.2<0.001
    Red meat (servings)0.5 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.40.6 ± 0.4<0.001
  • Data are means ± SE, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Energy adjusted.