Table 2

RR of GDM in relation to SSB consumption (n = 13,475; case subjects = 860)

SSB consumptionPtrend
0–3 servings/month1–4 servings/week≥5 servings/week1 serving/day
All SSBs
    No. case subjects/person-years323/185,682229/173,189208/185,757
    Model1*1.001.01 (0.85–1.20)1.23 (1.05–1.45)1.25 (1.07–1.45)0.005
    Model 2†1.001.02 (0.86–1.21)1.17 (1.00–1.37)1.18 (1.01–1.37)0.04
    Model 3‡1.001.06 (0.89–1.25)1.23 (1.05–1.44)1.23 (1.05–1.43)0.01
    Model 4§1.001.03 (0.87–1.23)1.16 (0.98–1.37)1.16 (0.99–1.36)0.06
Sugar-sweetened cola
    No. case subjects/person-years544/332,516168/113,899148/98,214
    Model1*1.001.12 (0.94–1.33)1.39 (1.16–1.67)1.39 (1.16–1.67)<0.001
    Model 2†1.001.07 (0.90–1.28)1.26 (1.04–1.51)1.25 (1.04–1.51)0.02
    Model 3‡1.001.11 (0.93–1.32)1.29 (1.07–1.56)1.29 (1.07–1.55)0.007
    Model 4§1.001.08 (0.90–1.28)1.22 (1.01–1.47)1.22 (1.01–1.47)0.04
Other SSBs
    No. case subjects/person-years448/254,751256/195,695156/94,182
    Model1*1.001.00 (0.86–1.17)0.98 (0.81–1.17)0.97 (0.77–1.22)0.78
    Model 2†1.001.00 (0.86–1.17)0.95 (0.79–1.14)0.94 (0.74–1.18)0.58
    Model 3‡1.001.06 (0.90–1.23)0.99 (0.82–1.19)0.99 (0.78–1.25)0.92
    Model 4§1.001.02 (0.87–1.19)0.94 (0.78–1.13)0.92 (0.73–1.16)0.48
  • Data are RR (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Model 1 adjusted for age (5-year category) and parity (0, 1, 2, or ≥3).

  • †Model 2 adjusted for variables in model 1 plus race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking status (never, past, or current), family history of diabetes in a first-degree relative (yes or no), alcohol intake (5 categories: 0, 0.1–5.0, 5.1–15.0, or >15 g/day), and physical activity (quintile).

  • ‡Model 3 adjusted for variables in model 2 plus BMI (9 categories: <21.0, 21.0–22.9, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, 27.0–28.9, 29.0–30.9, 31.0–32.9, 33.0–34.9, or ≥35.0 kg/m2).

  • §Model 4 adjusted for variables in model 3 plus Western dietary pattern score (quintile).