Table 3

RR of GDM in relation to diet beverage consumption (n = 13,475, cases = 860)

Diet beverage consumptionPtrend
0–3 servings/month1–4 servings/week≥5 servings/week1 serving/day
All diet beverages
    No. case subjects/person-years158/71,233268/175,901434/297,495
    Model1*1.000.86 (0.69–1.06)1.03 (0.89–1.19)1.06 (0.94–1.18)0.36
    Model 2†1.000.90 (0.73–1.11)1.08 (0.93–1.25)1.08 (0.97–1.21)0.17
    Model 3‡1.000.82 (0.66–1.01)0.86 (0.73–1.00)0.91 (0.81–1.03)0.12
    Model 4§1.000.85 (0.68–1.05)0.87 (0.74–1.02)0.92 (0.81–1.04)0.20
Diet cola
    No. case subjects/person-years356/472,125322/42,326182/30,178
    Model1*1.000.92 (0.75–1.13)1.03 (0.88–1.20)1.04 (0.92–1.17)0.53
    Model 2†1.000.97 (0.79–1.19)1.07 (0.91–1.25)1.06 (0.94–1.20)0.34
    Model 3‡1.000.87 (0.71–1.07)0.86 (0.73–1.00)0.90 (0.79–1.02)0.10
    Model 4§1.000.90 (0.72–1.12)0.86 (0.72–1.02)0.90 (0.78–1.03)0.07
Other diet beverages
    No. case subjects/person-years552/71,788217/461,34491/11497
    Model1*1.001.00 (0.83–1.20)1.28 (1.01–1.64)1.34 (0.98–1.81)0.06
    Model 2†1.001.06 (0.88–1.26)1.34 (1.05–1.71)1.44 (1.06–1.95)0.02
    Model 3‡1.000.94 (0.79–1.13)1.13 (0.88–1.44)1.13 (0.83–1.53)0.45
    Model 4§1.000.99 (0.82–1.20)1.18 (0.91–1.51)1.21 (0.88–1.66)0.24
  • Data are RR (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *Model 1 adjusted for age (5-year category) and parity (0, 1, 2, or ≥3).

  • †Model 2 adjusted for variables in model 1 plus race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking status (never, past, or current), family history of diabetes in a first-degree relative (yes or no), alcohol intake (5 categories: 0, 0.1–5.0, 5.1–15.0, or >15g/day), and physical activity (quintile).

  • ‡Model 3 adjusted for variables in model 2 plus BMI (9 categories: <21.0, 21.0–22.9, 23.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, 27.0–28.9, 29.0–30.9, 31.0–32.9, 33.0–34.9, or ≥35.0 kg/m2.)

  • §Model 4 adjusted for variables in model 3 plus Western dietary pattern score (quintile) and SSBs.