Table 1—

Clinical data in 117 women with type 1 diabetes according to urinary albumin excretion at inclusion in early pregnancy and in 25 healthy pregnant women

NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaDiabetic nephropathyHealthy pregnant women
n10010725
Age (years)30.5 (21–42)31 (21–34)30 (23–39)31 (26–43)
Duration of diabetes (years)16 (1–36)14 (1–31)20 (5–32)
UAE rate at inclusion (mg/24 h)7 (3–29)91 (30–198)690 (450–3,290)
Serum creatinine at inclusion (μmol/l)51 (33–75)51 (41–69)57 (42–95)
A1C at inclusion (%)6.7 (4.9–10.8)6.9 (5.8–10.5)6.5 (5.7–7.8)
BMI before pregnancy (kg/m2)24.2 (17.3–43.8)25.6 (21.0–34.4)25.0 (20.4–32.4)
Weight gain during pregnancy (kg)15.2 (5.6–34.4)14.5 (9.3–26.4)14.6 (9.3–22.8)
ACE inhibitor therapy before pregnancy12 (12)4 (40)5 (71)*
Number of women on antihypertensive therapy at some point in pregnancy14 (14)5 (50)7 (100)
Number of antihypertensive agents used during pregnancy in women treated with these drugs1.5 (1–3)1 (1–2)2 (1–4)
Diabetic retinopathy63 (63)5 (50)7 (100)
Preeclampsia7 (7)03 (43)0
Gestational age (days)265 (155–276)264 (252–272)258 (220–260)282 (264–296)
Preterm delivery <34 gestational weeks1 (1)01 (14)0
Preterm delivery <37 gestational weeks20 (20)2 (20)5 (71)*0
Birth weight (g)3,540 (445–5,620)3,430 (2,510–4,484)2,765 (2,040–3,730)3,510 (2,840–4,970)
Small-for-gestational-age infants (<10th centile)1 (1)02 (29)*2 (8)
Large-for-gestational-age infants (>90th centile)50 (50)5 (50)1 (14)2 (8)
Perinatal mortality (n)2 (2)000
  • Data are n (%) or medians (range).

  • * P < 0.01,

  • P = 0.0503,

  • P < 0.02 between women with diabetic nephropathy and the remaining diabetic women.