Table 3—

Comparison of pregnancy outcomes in studies of type 1 diabetic women with diabetic nephropathy receiving antihypertensive therapy during pregnancy

Dunne et al., 1999 (2)Ekbom et al., 2001 (3)Carr et al., 2006 (1)§Current study
Antihypertensive therapy strategyNot specifiedPreeclampsia diastolic BP >95 mmHgMean arterial BP ≥100 mmHgBP >135/85 mmHg UAE ≥300 mg/24 h ACE inhibitor prepregnancy
n2111437
Duration of diabetes (years)19.5 (12–30)16 (5)16.920 (5–32)
A1C at inclusion (%)9.7 (6.7–16.7)8.8 (1.3)8.16.6 (0.6)
Antihypertensive therapy before pregnancy (n)6 (55%)18 (42%)*5 (71%)
Patients on antihypertensive therapy during pregnancy (n)39 (90.7%)7 (100%)
Systolic BP at inclusion (mmHg)129 (11)138131 (19)
Diastolic BP at inclusion (mmHg)77 (8)8276 (9)
UAE at inclusion (mg/24 h)1,120 (466–5,528)3,170690 (450–3,290)
Preeclampsia (n)7 (64%)15 (35%)3 (43%)
Duration of pregnancy (days)243 (203–266)238258 (220–260)
Preterm delivery before 37 weeks (n)12 (57.2%)10 (91%)16 (38.1%)5 (71%)
Birth weight (g)2,429 (985–4,140)2,235 (1,038)2,2002,730 (601)
Small-for-gestational-age infants (<10th centile)5 (45%)2 (29%)
Perinatal mortality (n)2 (10%)04 (9%)0
Major congenital malformations (n)1 (5%)1 (9%)0
  • Data are means (SD), median (range), or n (%). A1C and birth weight in the current study are given as means (SD) to compare with previous results from our center (3). BP, blood pressure.

  • * Patients using antihypertensive therapy at first visit.

  • Preterm delivery before 32 weeks.

  • § Modified from Carr et al. (1) to constitute one group.

  • HbA1 or A1C (2).