Table 1—

Comparison of clinical variables among subjects with NGT, pre-diabetes, and diabetes

NGTPre-diabetesDiabetesP value
n1,069412157
Age (years)39.4 ± 14.049.5 ± 14.257.7 ± 12.8<0.001
Male sex (%)46.947.157.10.227
BMI (kg/m2)23.0 ± 3.324.7 ± 3.825.8 ± 3.5<0.001
Supine SBP (mmHg)114.4 ± 17.5124.5 ± 21.0135.8 ± 24.9<0.001
Supine DBP (mmHg)69.7 ± 9.674.7 ± 10.978.7 ± 11.1<0.001
Supine HR (beats/min)66.1 ± 10.369.0 ± 11.272.6 ± 12.1<0.001
Standing SBP (mmHg)107.0 ± 18.3117.1 ± 22.7126.5 ± 27.4<0.001
Standing DBP (mmHg)68.4 ± 10.772.6 ± 12.873.3 ± 11.9<0.001
Standing HR (beats/min)75.7 ± 11.576.7 ± 12.278.1 ± 13.2<0.001
Physical activity, MET-h/week*61.7 ± 88.558.3 ± 75.332.8 ± 36.7<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.45.6 ± 0.58.7 ± 3.4<0.001
A1C (%)4.9 ± 0.55.1 ± 0.67.5 ± 2.3<0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/l)4.9 ± 1.15.2 ± 1.05.3 ± 1.4<0.001
Triglyceride (mmol/l)*1.3 ± 1.01.5 ± 0.92.3 ± 3.6<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.4<0.001
Hypertension (%)10.926.049.0<0.001
Ischemic ECG pattern (%)10.915.320.40.002
Cerebrovascular disease (%)1.42.48.3<0.001
Antihypertensive use (%)4.112.123.6<0.001
Current alcohol use (%)12.413.814.00.711
Current smoking (%)21.818.022.90.209
  • Data are means ± SD or %. SBP and DBP represent the average of two supine (standing) systolic/diastolic blood pressures; HR represents the average of two supine (standing) heart rates.

  • * Kruskal-Wallis test.