Table 1—

Treatment groups, risk factors, and patients achieving national targets and differences between 1995 and 2005

Treatment groups1995 (n = 1,470)
2005 (n = 2,699)
Differences between 1995 and 2005P*
Total patientsPatients measuredPerformanceTotal patientsPatients measuredPerformance
A1C (%)
    Diet alone30.7 (452)84.7 (383)6.75 ± 0.9828.4 (766)86.3 (661)6.46 ± 0.850.29 (0.18–0.41)<0.001
    Metformin alone2.2 (33)87.5 (28)7.78 ± 1.4217.3 (467)94.9 (443)6.93 ± 0.990.85 (0.46–1.24)<0.001
    Sulfonylurea alone33.5 (491)88.8 (436)7.74 ± 1.4312.9 (348)93.7 (326)7.16 ± 1.140.58 (0.39–0.77)<0.001
    Metformin and sulfonylurea5.4 (80)95.0 (76)8.52 ± 1.8613.9 (374)96.5 (361)7.38 ± 1.061.31 (0.82–1.44)<0.001
    Insulin alone25.4 (374)90.1 (337)8.52 ± 1.6515.6 (422)93.8 (396)7.79 ± 1.260.73 (0.51–0.94)<0.001
    Insulin and oral agents1.1 (17)100 (17)8.66 ± 1.619.4 (255)95.3 (243)7.78 ± 1.300.88 (0.20–1.56)0.011
    Overall88.5 (1,301)7.74 ± 1.5992.5 (2,496)7.15 ± 1.200.59 (0.50–0.68)<0.001
SBP (mmHg)
    Not on BP-lowering therapy52.2 (767)82.1 (630)146.2 ± 20.934.9 (942)82.5 (777)134.9 ± 17.411.2 (9.2–13.3)<0.001
    BP-lowering therapy47.8 (703)91.3 (642)153.8 ± 22.365.1 (1,757)94.1 (1,653)143.0 ± 19.510.8 (8.9–12.6)<0.001
    Overall86.5 (1,272)150.0 ± 22.090.0 (2,430)140.4 ± 19.29.6 (8.2–10.9)<0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/l)
    Not on statin therapy95.2 (1,399)46.6 (652)6.31 ± 1.3754.3 (1,465)80.8 (1,184)5.43 ± 1.080.89 (0.77–1.00)<0.001
    Statin therapy4.8 (71)95.8 (68)5.99 ± 1.5445.7 (1,234)96.1 (1,186)4.63 ± 1.01.36 (1.11–1.62)<0.001
    Overall50 (720)6.28 ± 1.3987.8 (2,370)5.0 ± 1.11.26 (1.16–1.35)<0.001
Achievement of national targets (%)
    A1C ≤7.5%51.369.217.9 (12.5–23.3)<0.001
    SBP ≤140 mmHg46.765.719.0 (14.5–23.5)<0.001
    DBP ≤85 mmHg64.578.113.6 (8.6–18.7)<0.001
    Cholesterol ≤5 mmol/l16.852.936.2 (30.7–41.6)<0.001
    All four targets4.222.718.5 (15.2–21.7)<0.001
  • Data are % (n), means ± SD, or differences (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated.

  • * P values for differences in means of outcome measures are derived from an age- and sex-adjusted ANOVA analysis. P values for differences in percentage achieving national targets are adjusted for clustering by using practice-specific means as proportions in a paired t test. BP, blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.