Table 1—

Characteristics of subjects categorized according to the development of islet autoimmunity

Islet autoimmuneNot islet autoimmuneP
n46502
Age in years*2.2 ± 1.75.8 ± 3.2
Caucasian454910.92
Male sex21 (46)275 (54)0.28
HLA DR-3,416 (35)50 (10)0.001
HLA DR-3x or HLA DR-4x20 (43)266 (53)
Other5 (11)65 (13)
Unknown5 (11)118 (24)
Birth weight z score0.28 ± 1.280.25 ± 1.180.86
Gestational age38.6 ± 2.238.1 ± 2.70.25
Weight z score
    At 2 years0.79 ± 1.120.34 ± 1.170.02
    At 4 years0.77 ± 0.910.46 ± 1.100.08
BMI z score
    At 2 years0.90 ± 0.900.39 ± 1.210.02
    At 4 years0.76 ± 0.960.44 ± 1.180.11
Duration of exclusive breast-feeding
    0 months8 (17)98 (19)0.98
    >0–3 months10 (22)99 (20)
    >3 months16 (35)176 (35)
    Unknown12 (26)129 (26)
Total duration of breast-feeding
    0 months4 (9)49 (10)0.74
    >0–3 months7 (15)100 (20)
    >3 months23 (50)252 (50)
    Unknown12 (26)101 (20)
Age of introduction of cow's milk protein
    0–3 months15 (33)182 (36)0.21
    >3 months28 (61)248 (49)
    Unknown3 (7)72 (14)
Age of introduction of nongluten cereal
    >0–4 months18 (39)176 (35)0.80
    >4 months14 (31)174 (34)
    Unknown14 (30)152 (30)
Age of introduction of gluten
    >0–4 months5 (11)59 (12)0.86
    >4 months30 (66)340 (68)
    Unknown11 (24)103 (21)
Breast-fed at introduction of cereals
    Yes21 (46)228 (45)0.83
    No13 (28)160 (32)
    Unknown12 (26)114 (23)
Breast-fed at introduction of cow's milk
    Yes12 (26)134 (26)0.78
    No21 (46)249 (50)
    Unknown13 (28)119 (24)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • * For islet autoimmune, age at visit when first tested positive for autoantibodies. For not islet autoimmune, age at last visit.

  • Cow's milk protein introduced as infant formulae, dairy products, or cow's milk.