Table 2—

Parametric survival model on risk of islet autoimmunity

Risk factornUnadjusted HR (95% CI)P
Weight z score over time1.44 (1.12–1.87)0.004
Weight z score
    ≤01,9321.00.006
    >02,6642.77 (1.33–5.75)
    2 years1.38 (1.05–1.83)0.02
    4 years1.29 (0.96–1.73)0.08
Change in weight z score
    Between birth and 2 years1.28 (1.04–1.59)0.02
    Between birth and 4 years1.23 (0.98–1.53)0.07
BMI z score over time1.31 (1.02–1.68)0.03
BMI z score
    ≤01,9021.00.09
    >02,4311.81 (0.93–3.52)
    2 years1.42 (1.06–1.89)0.02
    4 years1.27 (0.95–1.72)0.11
Age of introduction of gluten
    ≤4 months0.90 (0.35–2.33)0.62
    >4 months1
    Unknown1.39 (0.70–2.78)
Age of introduction of nongluten cereals
    ≤4 months1.21 (0.60–2.42)0.70
    >4 months1
    Unknown1.33 (0.63–2.79)
Duration of exclusive breast-feeding
    0 months0.95 (0.40–2.21)0.94
    >0–3 months1.12 (0.51–2.46)
    >3 months1
    Unknown1.21 (0.60–2.56)
Total duration of breast-feeding
    0 months00.93 (0.32–2.70)0.49
    >0–3 months0.82 (0.35–1.91)
    >3 months1
    Unknown1.57 (0.78–3.15)
Age of introduction of cow's milk protein*
    0–3 months0.78 (0.42–1.46)0.47
    >3 months1
    Unknown0.28 (0.52–1.71)
Breast fed at introduction of cow's milk*
    Yes1.01 (0.50–2.05)0.49
    No1
    Unknown1.49 (075–2.97)
Breast fed at introduction of cereals
    Yes1.08 (0.54–2.15)0.61
    No1
    Unknown1.45 (0.66–3.18)
Parity1.02 (0.77–1.37)0.85
Sex
    Male1.00.24
    Female1.42 (0.78–2.53)
Birth weight z score1.04 (0.82–1.33)0.74
Gestational age1.10 (0.95–1.28)0.20
HLA-DR
    3, 41<0.001
    3x or 4x0.27 (0.14–0.51)
    Unknown0.21 (0.08–0.57)
  • * Cow's milk protein introduced as infant formulae, dairy products, or cow's milk.