Table 2—

Characteristics of the clinic-based cohort of 471 individuals with type 1 diabetes by diabetes duration

Duration of diabetes (years)
P
<1010–1920–29≥30
n16516210143
Male104 (63.0)91 (56.2)52 (51.5)18 (41.9)0.05
Age (years)34.2 ± 9.737.3 ± 9.041.6 ± 8.447.5 ± 6.1<0.001
C-peptide (nmol/l)0.12 (0.08–0.27)0.05 (0.02–0.10)0.04 (0.02–0.10)0.03 (0.01–0.10)<0.0001
Retinopathy
    Background17 (10.3)48 (29.6)45 (44.6)23 (55.5)<0.0001
    Preproliferating0 (0)5 (3.1)5 (5.0)0 (0)
    Proliferating0 (0)12 (7.4)15 (14.9)7 (16.3)
Diabetic nephropathy2 (1.2)12 (7.4)15 (14.9)7 (16.3)<0.0001
Autonomic or peripheral neuropathy25 (15.1)55 (33.0)53 (52.5)32 (74.4)<0.0001
All microvascular complications37 (22.4)90 (55.6)76 (75.3)39 (90.7)<0.0001
Cardiovascular disease2 (1.2)5 (3.1)16 (15.8)8 (18.6)<0.0001
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or geometric mean (25th–75th percentile) unless otherwise indicated.