Table 1—

Demographics and clinical characteristics by race/ethnicity among adults with type 2 diabetes in Chicago-area clinics, 2004–2006

CaucasianAfrican AmericanLatinoP*
n230279167
Age (years)65 ± 1365 ± 1355 ± 13<0.0001
Male503248<0.0001
Born outside the U.S.7164<0.0001
Interview conducted in Spanish0051<0.0001
High school graduate847350<0.0001
Health insurance
    Private755569<0.0001
    Medicare505822<0.0001
    Medicaid82916<0.0001
    Prescription drug plan9093920.6301
Annual income <10,000 USD112913<0.0001
Duration of diabetes (years)10 ± 910 ± 99 ± 70.4631
Self-reported comorbid conditions or complications
    Hypertension728657<0.0001
    Hypercholesterolemia7062630.1322
    Diabetic eye disease1322250.0081
    Diabetic kidney disease68100.3259
    Foot disease (peripheral neuropathy and amputation)5654450.0796
    Heart disease3334220.0258
    Stroke91640.0004
SF-12
    PCS42 ± 1241 ± 1247 ± 10<0.0001
    MCS51 ± 1151 ± 1147 ± 110.0004
Risk factor levels
    A1C (%)7.18 ± 1.457.54 ± 1.597.69 ± 1.780.0057
    A1C <7%5541470.0057
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)93 ± 3596 ± 32102 ± 340.0090
    LDL cholesterol <100 mg/dl6561560.1962
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130 ± 16136 ± 18126 ± 17<0.0001
    Systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg473254<0.0001
Number of medications§7 ± 47 ± 35 ± 30.0002
Mean number of diabetes-related medications4 ± 24 ± 23 ± 2<0.0001
Glucose lowering therapy
    Diet alone2319140.0014
    Oral medications alone565568
    Insulin and oral medications8165
    Insulin alone131113
    Aspirin474324<0.0001
    Cholesterol lowering drug6853510.0006
  • Data are means ± SD or % unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Differences in means were assessed with the Wilcoxon's rank-sum test; differences in proportions were assessed with the χ2 test.

  • Abstracted from medical records.

  • Based on patient self-report.

  • §

    § The most common nondiabetes-related medications included multivitamins, proton-pump inhibitors, calcium supplementation, and thyroid replacement therapy. MCS, mental component summary; PCS, physical component summary; SF-12, 12-item Short-Form Health Survey.