Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of ACCORD-MIND participants

VariableResult
n2,977
Female sex (%)1,388 (47)
Age (years)62.5 ± 5.8
Diabetes duration (years)10.4 ± 7.3
Mean BMI (kg/m2)33.0 ± 5.4
Mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio0.092 ± 0.404
Previous cardiovascular disease (%)*869 (29)
Stroke (%)151 (5)
Nonstroke (%)718 (24)
Hyperlipidemia (%)2,426 (82)
Previous hypertension or use of blood pressure drugs (%)2,578 (87)
Current smoker (%)352 (12)
>3 drinks/week (%)232 (8)
Education
    Not a high school graduate (%)392 (13)
    Just high school (%)769 (26)
    Some college or technical school (%)1,027 (35)
    College graduate or more (%)789 (27)
Ethnicity
    Hispanic (%)213 (7)
    Non-Hispanic white (%)2,074 (70)
    African American/African Canadian (%)478 (16)
    Asian (%)67 (2)
    American Indian/Alaska Native (%)65 (2)
    Other (%)80 (2.6)
Vitrectomy (%)15 (0.5)
Neuropathy (%)1,472 (50)
Past or current depression or PHQ 9 score ≥10 (%)980 (33)
Living alone (%)654 (22)
Cognitive testing in Spanish63 ± 2.1
DSST score53 (42–63)
MMSE score28 (26–29)
Memory score7.4 (5.7–9.3)
Stroop Test score (s)29 (21–38)
A1C (%)8.3 ± 1.1
FPG (mg/dl)175.5 ± 55
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (25th–75th percentile). The range of scores for the ACCORD participants is DSST 2–97, MMSE 12–30, memory 0.9–14.5, and Stroop −10 to 171.

  • *

    * Myocardial infarction, angina with ischemic changes on graded exercise test or positive imaging, coronary revascularization procedures, or stroke.

  • Taking lipid-lowering medication or an untreated LDL cholesterol level >130 mg/dl (3.38 mmol/l).

  • History of neuropathy or absent ankle reflexes or vibration perception at great toe for either foot.