Table 2—

β-coefficients for the age-adjusted relationship between cognitive test scores, glycemic status, and other variables: ACCORD-MIND

VariableDSSTMMSEMemory scoreStroop
Female sex1.79−0.271.30§0.41
Diabetes duration (years)−0.26§0.14−0.01−0.01
CVD*−1.980.12−0.48§1.43
Stroke−8.18§−0.69−0.86§4.53
Nonstroke CVD−0.080.32−0.310.40
Hyperlipidemia1.950.02−0.12−1.22
Hypertension or blood pressure drugs−1.78−0.11−0.140.37
Current smoker−2.75−0.29−0.460.38
>3 drinks/week4.80§0.76§−0.01−2.81
Education
    < high school−22.51§−3.24§−1.89§12.30§
    High school−10.63§−1.4§−0.89§6.63§
    Some college−5.2§−0.6§−0.413.86§
Language−25.97§−2.7§−1.51§10.27§
Race (Nonwhite)−13.39§−1.92§−0.83§6.71§
Vitrectomy−7.780.490.507.11
Neuropathy1.840.41§0.17−0.82
Depression or PHQ 9 score ≥10−1.04−0.34−0.050.54
Living alone0.210.070.271.19
BMI (kg/m2)0.200.04§0.04§0.04
Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio−3.06§−0.11−0.201.29
A1C (%)−1.75§−0.20§−0.110.75
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)0.00570.00060.00006−0.0055
  • *

    * Myocardial infarction, angina with ischemic changes on graded exercise test or positive imaging, coronary revascularization procedures, or stroke.

  • Taking lipid-lowering medication or an untreated LDL cholesterol level >130 mg/dl (3.38 mmol/l).

  • History of neuropathy or absent ankle reflexes or vibration perception at great toe for either foot.

  • §

    § P ≤ 0.0001;

  • P ≤ 0.05.