Table 2—

Univariate analysis of potential predictive factors for A1C <7% in type 1 diabetic or type 2 diabetic patients by region

Eastern Europe
Asia
Latin America
A1C <7%A1C ≥7%P*A1C <7%A1C ≥7%P*A1C <7%A1C ≥7%P*
Type 1 diabetes
    Clinical profile
        n2014418532065243
        Age (years)33.8 ± 1234 ± 11.960.88733.6 ± 12.6935.3 ± 13.450.28739.0 ± 15.5341.3 ± 16.130.309
        Mean disease duration (years)10.9 ± 9.1011.4 ± 8.430.5299.6 ± 8.9910.1 ± 7.210.58212.6 ± 9.5116.1 ± 11.300.022
        BMI by categories (kg/m2)0.2520.1260.516
    <18.59 (4.5)12 (2.7)6 (7.2)29 (9.2)2 (3.1)11 (4.6)
            18.5 to <25140 (70.0)290 (66.1)71 (85.5)228 (72.2)33 (50.8)134 (55.8)
            25 to <3041 (20.5)122 (27.8)5 (6.0)48 (15.2)27 (41.5)79 (32.9)
            30 to <358 (4.0)12 (2.7)1 (1.2)10 (3.2)3 (4.6)10 (4.2)
            ≥352 (1.0)3 (0.7)0 (0)1 (0.3)0 (0)6 (2.5)
        ≥1 microvascular complication102 (50.7)253 (57.4)0.29338 (44.7)155 (48.4)0.61026 (40.0)135 (55.6)0.052
        ≥1 macrovascular complication18 (9.0)45 (10.3)0.4627 (8.2)26 (8.1)0.2257 (10.8)48 (19.8)0.047
    Self-management
        SMBG (fasting blood glucose or postprandial glucose)189 (94.5)383 (87.6)0.00871 (83.5)225 (70.3)0.01560 (92.3)195 (80.2)0.022
        Patient self-adjusts insulin177 (90.3)378 (86.5)0.17853 (64.6)175 (55.7)0.14649 (75.4)161 (67.4)0.215
    Care processes
        ≤6 consultations per year147 (74.2)309 (71.5)0.74535 (41.7)157 (49.4)0.36237 (57.8)145 (59.7)0.962
        Trained by diabetes educator189 (95.0)404 (92.2)0.20765 (79.3)254 (80.1)0.86355 (87.3)168 (70.6)0.007
        Seen by endocrinologists or diabetologists177 (88.1)378 (85.7)0.42176 (89.4)273 (85.3)0.33048 (73.8)186 (76.5)0.651
        Health insurance coverage96 (99.0)179 (100)0.17454 (63.5)217 (68.5)0.39053 (84.1)198 (83.2)0.859
Type 2 diabetes
    Clinical profile
        n51090412682131453807
        Age (years)58.8 ± 10.6957.9 ± 10.250.13758.4 ± 11.5357.2 ± 11.740.00263.3 ± 11.7461.9 ± 10.840.035
        Mean disease duration (years)7.5 ± 6.709.3 ± 7.37<0.0017.5 ± 6.739.4 ± 7.02<0.0018.6 ± 7.8911.4 ± 8.54<0.001
        BMI by categories (kg/m2)0.4300.0050.595
            <18.52 (0.4)1 (0.1)19 (1.5)34 (1.6)1 (0.2)3 (0.4)
            18.5 to <2588 (17.3)162 (18.0)594 (47.7)960 (45.7)102 (22.8)167 (21.2)
            25 to <30229 (45.0)368 (41.0)505 (40.5)797 (37.9)185 (41.3)360 (45.7)
            30 to <35138 (27.1)259 (28.8)104 (8.3)239 (11.4)108 (24.1)180 (22.8)
            ≥3552 (10.2)108 (12.0)24 (1.9)71 (3.4)52 (11.6)78 (9.9)
        ≥1 microvascular complications267 (52.5)585 (64.6)<0.001579 (45.7)1,186 (55.9)<0.001220 (49.0%)524 (65.1%)<0.001
        ≥1 macrovascular complication120 (23.6)346 (38.2)<0.001261 (20.6)479 (22.5)0.374116 (25.6)264 (32.8)0.004
    Treatment
        OGLD41763311151863369607
        OGLD only369 (88.5)446 (70.5)982 (88.1)1,344 (72.1)309 (83.7)406 (66.9)
        OGLD + insulin48 (11.5)187 (29.5)133 (11.9)519 (27.9)60 (16.3)201 (33.1)
        Mean number of OGLDs1.2 ± 0.811.1 ± 0.920.0281.5 ± 0.861.7 ± 0.91<0.0011.3 ± 0.821.2 ± 0.870.208
    Self-management
        SMBG (FBG or PPG)218 (42.7)420 (46.4)0.184502 (39.6)857 (40.3)0.703209 (46.1)374 (46.4)0.928
        Patient self-adjusts insulin72 (14.3)237 (26.5)<0.00193 (7.4)215 (10.1)<0.00132 (7.1)113 (14.1)<0.001
    Care processes
        ≤6 consultations per year408 (85.2)653 (77.7)0.003659 (52.4)1,099 (52.2)0.722288 (64.0)484 (60.2)0.006
        Trained by diabetes educator359 (71.5)585 (65.7)0.027785 (63.7)1,383 (66.3)0.136263 (59.0)434 (54.4)0.118
        Seen by endocrinologists or diabetologists417 (81.8)720 (79.4)0.280950 (74.9)1,616 (75.8)0.550285 (62.9)428 (53.0)<0.001
        Health insurance coverage142 (100)271 (98.9)0.211788 (63.6)1,287 (61.9)0.338384 (87.7)589 (75.6)<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Student's t test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.

  • Calculated for all patients, including those not taking OGLDs.

  • Those patients without self-adjustment of insulin comprise insulin-treated patients not self-adjusting and patients not treated with insulin. FBG, fasting blood glucose; PPG, postprandial glucose.