Table 2—

Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios for pre-diabetes among nondiabetic U.S. adolescents aged 12–19 years, NHANES 2005–2006

nModel 1Model 2Model 3
Sex
    Female (nonpregnant only)3811.0 (—)1.0 (—)1.0 (—)
    Male3962.4 (1.3–4.3)3.0 (1.9–4.8)2.9 (1.8–4.6)
Race/ethnicity
    Non-Hispanic white1891.0 (—)1.0 (—)1.0 (—)
    Non-Hispanic black2570.6 (0.4–0.9)0.5 (0.4–0.8)0.5 (0.4–0.8)
    Mexican American2771.0 (0.6–1.6)0.8 (0.5–1.2)0.7 (0.5–1.0)
Age (years)
    12–153881.0 (—)1.0 (—)1.0 (—)
    16–193890.6 (0.4–0.9)0.5 (0.3–0.9)0.6 (0.3–1.0)
Weight status
    Normal4781.0 (—)1.0 (—)1.0 (—)
    At risk for overweight*1341.6 (0.8–3.0)1.4 (0.7–3.0)1.2 (0.7–2.1)
    Overweight1652.6 (1.3–5.1)2.1 (1.1–3.8)0.9 (0.6–1.5)
Number of cardiometabolic risk factors
    04301.0 (—)1.0 (—)1.0 (—)
    12321.2 (0.5–2.5)1.1 (0.6–2.3)0.9 (0.5–1.6)
    ≥21152.7 (1.4–5.2)2.2 (1.2–3.9)1.5 (0.8–2.6)
Hyperinsulinemia§
    ≤75th percentile5341.0 (—)1.0 (—)
    >75th percentile2364.0 (2.2–7.4)4.1 (2.3–7.2)
  • Data are prevalence ratios (95% CI). Model 1 included each single variable only. Model 2 included sex, race/ethnicity, age, weight status, and number of cardiometabolic risk factors. Model 3 included sex, race/ethnicity, age, weight status, number of cardiometabolic risk factors, and hyperinsulinemia.

  • *

    * Defined as 85th ≤ BMI < 95th percentile.

  • Defined as BMI ≥95th percentile.

  • The cardiometabolic risk factors consisted of central obesity, high blood pressure, low HDL cholesterol, and high triglycerides in accordance with the definition proposed by the International Federation of Diabetes (16,17).

  • §

    § Defined as >75th percentile of fasting insulin (82.5 pmol/l or 13.8 μU/ml) by the Mercodia method. To convert fasting insulin between the Mercodia and the Tosoh methods, see footnote ‖ to Table 1.