Table 3—

Study outcomes and service use at 12 months after intervention by randomization group

Usual-care groupIntervention groupMean group differenceP
n35*39*
Mean GHb (%)
    Baseline7.98.20.30.12
    Follow-up8.17.3−0.80.01
    Change0.2−0.9−1.1<0.01
    Adjusted analysis−0.70.01
GHb <7% (%)
    Baseline000
    Follow-up1133220.03
    Change1133220.03
Any contacts (%)
    E-mail with case manager0.069NA
    Blood glucose level uploads0.043NA
    Review of electronic medical record0.076NA
Outpatient visits
    Pre10.3 ± 7.79.6 ± (9.6)−0.70.71
    Post8.2 ± (9.1)10.2 ± (10.1)20.36
    Change−2.1 ± (7.0)0.6 ± (10.7)2.70.18
Primary care provider visits
    Pre3.3 ± 2.24.3 ± 3.810.15
    Post3.1 ± 3.04.3 ± 4.51.20.16
    Change−0.2 ± 2.80.0 ± 2.90.20.76
Specialty physician visits
    Pre7.0 ± 7.95.3 ± 7.1−1.70.30
    Post5.1 ± 8.75.9 ± 7.40.80.66
    Change−1.9 ± 5.90.6 ± 9.02.50.14
Inpatient days
    Pre0.7 ± 1.80.3 ± 1.5−0.40.31
    Post0.4 ± 1.20.5 ± 2.00.10.77
    Change−0.3 ± 1.80.2 ± 2.60.50.32
  • Data are mean, mean ± SD, or % unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * Six subjects in the usual-care group and three subjects in the intervention group did not have follow-up GHb measures at 12 months.

  • Analysis adjusted for age, sex, and baseline GHb.