Table 3—

Multiple logistic regression results for 396 South Asian versus 459 white European patients

Model 1: unadjustedModel 2: adjusted for confoundersModel 3: adjusted for confounders and interactions
Any retinopathy
    Ethnicity (SA vs. WH)1.30 (0.99–1.71), 0.06011.46 (1.06–2.02), 0.0225P = 0.0023
    Duration of diabetes1.11 (1.08–1.14), <0.0001P < 0.0001
    Age at diagnosis1.00 (0.98–1.02), 0.56291.00 (0.98–1.01), 0.6176
    Sex (male vs. female)1.39 (1.02–1.87), 0.03431.35 (1.00–1.83), 0.0499
    Systolic blood pressure1.01 (1.00–1.02), 0.00851.01 (1.00–1.02), 0.0095
    A1C1.11 (1.01–1.23), 0.03541.12 (1.01–1.24), 0.0260
    Insulin treated (yes vs. no)2.23 (1.52–3.28), <0.00012.18 (1.48–3.21), <0.0001
    Duration × ethnicityP = 0.0324
STR
    Ethnicity (SA vs. WH)1.38 (0.95–2.02), 0.09541.44 (0.94–2.23), 0.0968
    Duration of diabetes1.09 (1.06–1.12), <0.0001
    Age at diagnosis1.00 (0.98–1.02), 0.7675
    Sex (male vs. female)1.29 (0.86–1.94), 0.2262
    Systolic blood pressure1.01 (1.00–1.02), 0.0445
    A1C1.14 (1.01–1.29), 0.0322
    Insulin treated (yes vs. no)1.89 (1.18–3.00), 0.0072
Maculopathy
    Ethnicity (SA vs. WH)1.54 (1.00–2.38), 0.05051.53 (0.94–2.49), 0.0842P = 0.0035
    Duration of diabetes1.06 (1.02–1.09), 0.0009P = 0.0002
    Age at diagnosis1.00 (0.98–1.03), 0.80521.00 (0.98–1.03), 0.7993
    Sex (male vs. female)1.09 (0.69–1.72), 0.70301.08 (0.68–1.70), 0.7531
    Systolic blood pressure1.01 (1.00–1.02), 0.02431.01 (1.00–1.02), 0.0365
    A1C1.18 (1.03–1.34), 0.01681.19 (1.04–1.36), 0.0124
    Insulin treated (yes vs. no)1.96 (1.17–3.26), 0.01021.83 (1.09–3.08), 0.0225
Duration × ethnicityP = 0.0157
  • Data are odds ratio (95% CI), P value. SA, South Asian; WH, white European.