Table 1—

Demographic, metabolic, and clinical characteristics of participants, according to study group

VariableType 1, A1C <7.5%P value*ControlP valueType 1, A1C ≥7.5%
n164188348
Age at visit13.9 (13.4–14.4)0.114.4 (14.0–14.8)0.0215.0 (14.7–15.4)
Sex (% male)57.30.00139.90.146.6
Race/ethnicity (%)<0.0001<0.0001
    Non-Hispanic white82.954.379.9
    Hispanic8.517.69.8
    African American8.528.210.3
A1C (%)6.5 (6.4–6.6)<0.0015.1 (5.1–5.2)<0.0019.2 (9.0–9.4)
BMI (kg/m2)22.7 (22.0–23.4)0.0723.7 (22.8–24.7)0.00122.0 (21.6–22.5)
BMI z score0.6 (0.4–0.8)0.50.7 (0.5–0.8)0.030.5 (0.4–0.6)
Waist (cm)79.5 (77.7–81.4)0.780.1 (77.9–82.3)0.178.2 (77.0–79.5)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)106.5 (104.8–108.2)0.3107.6 (106.0–109.2)0.2106.3 (105.0–107.6)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)69.0 (67.5–70.5)0.369.9 (68.6–71.3)0.268.8 (67.8–69.9)
Physical activity4.21 (3.47–4.94)0.015.41 (4.66–6.17)0.75.21 (4.57–5.86)
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−1)0.54 (0.50–0.59)N/A0.82 (0.78–0.86)
Duration (years)2.2 (1.7–2.8)N/A5.1 (4.6–5.6)
  • Characteristics are expressed as means (95% CI) or %.

  • *

    * Type 1 diabetes and A1C <7.5 versus control.

  • Type 1 diabetes and A1C ≥7.5 versus control. N/A, not applicable.