Table 1—

Baseline characteristics in subjects with and without the metabolic syndrome

With metabolic syndromeWithout metabolic syndromeP value*
n221342
Age (years)69.5 (67.2, 72.5)70.4 (67.7, 72.7)0.150
Previous CVD (%)28280.883
Current smokers (%)28380.022
Use of medication (%)
    Statins26280.697
    ACE inhibitors2210<0.001
Diabetes (%)296<0.001
Impaired fasting glucose (%)5632<0.001
Treated hypertension (%)4024<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)28.4 (26.6, 30.6)25.3 (23.5, 27.0)<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)104 (99, 109)95 (90, 99)<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)2.0 (1.8, 2.5)1.3 (1.0, 1.6)<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.2 (1.0, 1.4)1.5 (1.3, 1.7)<0.001
Cholesterol (mmol/l)6.3 (5.5, 7.0)6.4 (5.8, 7.0)0.107
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)152 (141, 164)146 (133, 159)<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)85 (80, 92)82 (74, 90)<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)6.1 (5.7, 6.8)5.4 (5.1, 5.8)<0.001
Homeostasis model assessment score5.4 (3.9, 7.3)3.7 (2.9, 4.6)<0.001
CRP (mg/l)3.64 (2.16, 6.53)2.88 (1.50, 5.82)0.013
IL-18 (pg/ml)292 (231, 377)265 (202, 341)0.002
IL-6 (pg/ml)1.61 (1.08, 2.62)1.45 (0.92, 2.41)0.047
IL-8 (pg/ml)18.8 (15.0, 24.7)17.4 (13.6, 23.0)0.106
IL-10 (pg/ml)1.39 (0.70, 3.64)1.74 (0.77, 3.98)0.194
CD40L (pg/ml)57 (46, 74)52 (43, 65)0.003
TNF-α (pg/ml)1.21 (0.82, 2.05)1.05 (0.77, 1.86)0.025
MCP-1 (pg/ml)441 (393, 563)426 (355, 499)0.001
Adiponectin (ng/ml)6,703 (4,371, 10,870)9,459 (6,167, 13,875)<0.001
PAI-1 activity (units/ml)18.8 (12.1, 27.6)11.4 (7.6, 18.2)<0.001
  • Data are median values (25th, 75th percentiles).

  • *

    * P values refer to differences between groups.