Table 1—

Characteristics of individuals with NGT before development of i-IFG, i-IGT, or IFG/IGT or maintenance of NGT status

NGT → NGTNGT → i-IFGNGT → i-IGTNGT → IFG/IGTP < 0.05*
n2,8428319228
Male sex (%)46.8 (45.0–48.7)77.1 (66.6–85.6)53.1 (45.8–60.3)67.9 (47.6–84.1)a, c, d
Family history of diabetes (%)14.4 (13.2–15.8)22.9 (14.4–33.4)18.2 (13.0–24.4)39.3 (21.5;59.4)a, c, e, f
Age (years)45.4 (45.2–45.7)48.6 (47.0–50.2)47.7 (46.6–48.7)49.0 (46.2–51.8)a, b, c
BMI (kg/m2)25.2 (25.1–25.3)27.2 (26.4–28.1)26.4 (25.9–27.0)28.2 (26.7–29.6)a, b, c, f
Waist circumference (cm)83.4 (82.9–83.8)92.3 (89.8–94.8)87.6 (85.9–89.2)95.4 (91.1–99.7)a, b, c, e, f
Physical activity (min/week)305 (299–312)295 (260–331)275 (251–298)336 (276–396)b
Dietary quality score (points)4.08 (4.03–4.14)3.69 (3.37–4.00)3.84 (3.63–4.04)3.64 (3.11–4.17)b
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.3 (5.3–5.3)5.7 (5.6–5.8)5.4 (5.3–5.4)5.8 (5.6–5.9)a, c, d, f
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.4 (5.4–5.5)5.8 (5.6–6.0)6.2 (6.0–6.3)6.4 (6.0–6.8)a, b, c, d, e
Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)30 (21–43)38 (26–48)35 (24–56)34 (24–59)a, b
2-h serum insulin (pmol/l)131 (83–196)148 (77–266)188 (124–284)161 (86–341)a, b, c, d
ISI2.64 (2.16–3.30)2.27 (1.85–3.00)2.13 (1.85–2.51)2.14 (1.63–3.02)a, b, c, d
HOMA-IS0.99 (0.67–1.42)0.74 (0.58–1.08)0.81 (0.51–1.20)0.78 (0.48–1.11)a, b
EPIR755 (559–973)637 (449–912)689 (494–1,014)501 (364–936)a, c, d, f
DI2,037 (1,464–2,728)1,507 (1,053–2,175)1,586 (1,112–2,182)1,209 (699–1,620)a, b, c
  • Data are unadjusted means and proportions (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. Baseline, n = 3,145. P values are adjusted for age and sex.

  • *

    * P values for BMI were further adjusted for baseline physical activity level. P values for HOMA-IS, ISI, EPIR, and DI were further adjusted for family history of diabetes as well as baseline values of BMI, smoking, physical activity, and dietary quality. Wald test from linear models: a, i-IFG vs. NGT; b, i-IGT vs. NGT; c, IFG/IGT vs. NGT; d, i-IGT vs. i-IFG; e, IFG/IGT vs. i-IFG; f, IFG/IGT vs. i-IGT.

  • Unadjusted medians (interquartile range).