Table 2—

Characteristics of individuals with incident i-IFG, i-IGT, IFG/IGT, or NGT (5-year follow-up)

NGT → NGTNGT → i-IFGNGT → i-IGTNGT → IFG/IGTP < 0.05*
n2,8428319228
BMI (kg/m2)25.6 (25.5–25.8)28.2 (27.4–29.1)27.4 (26.8–27.9)29.1 (27.6–30.6)a, b, c
Waist circumference (cm)86.5 (86.1–86.9)95.9 (93.4–98.5)91.8 (90.1–93.5)98.5 (94.1–102.9)a, b, c, f
Physical activity (min/week)301 (296–307)299 (265–333)256 (233–279)309 (250–368)b
Dietary quality score (points)4.60 (4.54–4.65)4.37 (4.06–4.69)4.25 (4.04–4.46)4.46 (3.89–5.03)b
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.2 (5.2–5.2)6.4 (6.3–6.4)5.4 (5.1–5.4)6.4 (6.2–6.6)a, b, c, d, f
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.2 (5.2–5.3)5.8 (5.6–6.0)8.6 (8.5–8.8)8.5 (8.1–8.9)a, b, c, d, e
Fasting serum insulin (pmol/l)27 (20–39)48 (34–67)37 (25–54)56 (37–91)a, b, c, d, f
2-h serum insulin (pmol/l)139 (85–211)202 (103–292)365 (231–560)361 (246–571)a, b, c, d, e
ISI2.68 (2.19–3.43)1.99 (1.69–2.54)1.47 (1.27–1.67)1.36 (1.20–1.58)a, b, c, d, e
HOMA-IS1.11 (0.75–1.54)0.51 (0.36–0.73)0.79 (0.54–1.17)0.45 (0.33–0.67)a, b, c, d, f
EPIR746 (569–978)639 (380–960)670 (447–903)586 (365–1,001)a, b, c, f
DI2,084 (1,514–2,864)1,325 (918–1,949)1,047 (656–1,312)815 (516–1,185)a, b, c, d, e
  • Data are unadjusted means and proportions (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. n = 3,145.

  • *

    * P values are adjusted for age, sex, and risk/intervention group. P values for BMI were further adjusted for 5-year physical activity level. P values for ISI, HOMA-IS, EPIR, and DI were further adjusted for family history of diabetes as well as 5-year values of BMI, smoking, physical activity, and dietary quality. Wald test from linear models: a, i-IFG vs. NGT; b, i-IGT vs. NGT; c, IFG/IGT vs. NGT; d, i-IGT vs. i-IFG; e, IFG/IGT vs. i-IFG; f, IFG/IGT vs. i-IGT.

  • Unadjusted medians (interquartile range).