Table 2—

Sex-specific multivariable-adjusted mean difference in volumes of SAT and VAT per 1-SD increment in DGAI and PAI and least-squares mean volumes of SAT and VAT by smoking and alcohol categories

Women
Men
P for sex interaction
Multivariable-adjusted residual effect size*PMultivariable-adjusted residual effect size*P
DGAI
    SAT (cm3)−232 (−375 to −88)0.002−217 (−339 to −95)0.00060.87
    VAT (cm3)−139 (−222 to −57)0.001−243 (−353 to −132)<0.00010.14
PAI
    SAT (cm3)−253 (−333 to −173)<0.0001−128 (−193 to −63)0.00010.0002
    VAT (cm3)−100 (−140 to −60)<0.0001−85 (−133 to −37)0.00060.05
Least squares*P§Least squares*P§P for sex interaction
Smoking
    SAT (cm3)
        Current2,976 ± 1170.062,629 ± 880.020.46
        Former3,247 ± 632,743 ± 56
        Never3,081 ± 602,538 ± 44
    VAT (cm3)
        Current1,393 ± 590.032,188 ± 660.0050.10
        Former1,348 ± 322,262 ± 42
        Never1,250 ± 302,086 ± 33
Alcohol (drinks/week)
    SAT (cm3)
        Light/moderate3,184 ± 440.0062,622 ± 340.910.02
        High2,869 ± 1062,612 ± 80
    VAT (cm3)
        Light/moderate1,320 ± 220.182,139 ± 250.040.01
        High1,243 ± 532,272 ± 59
  • Data are mean difference (95% CI) or mean ± SEM.

  • *

    * Adjusted for age, menopause (women only), hormone replacement therapy (women only), smoking, alcohol, and education.

  • ANOVA P value.

  • Data only available for Offspring cohort (n = 925).

  • §

    § Global P value.

  • Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption (≤7 drinks/week for women and ≤14 drinks/week for men).