Table 1—

Sample characteristics

Type 1 diabetesControlMean difference (type 1 diabetes − control)
P
Estimate95% CI
Sample size (n)10675
Age (years)20.5 ± 4.321.0 ± 3.8−0.50−1.74 to 0.740.4
Female sex (%)4951−1.6−16.0 to 12.90.9
SES (1 = high, 7 = low)4.3 ± 1.14.1 ± 1.10.25−0.08 to 0.590.14
Mental health (YSR/YASR total t score)48.7 ± 11.549.5 ± 11.0−0.75−4.17 to 2.660.7
FSIQbaseline108.0 ± 15.1110.6 ± 12.2−2.66−6.83 to 1.520.2
Time between baseline assessment and12-year follow-up (years)12.7 ± 1.112.0 ± 1.10.700.37 to 1.03<0.001
Neuroimaging (n)7951
Age (years)20.3 ± 4.320.6 ± 3.6−0.25−1.69 to 1.180.7
Female sex4147−6.6−2.3 to 10.50.5
BGL at imaging (mmol/l)12.6 ± 5.4
BGL at neurocognitive testing (mmol/l)11.7 ± 5.9
Most recent A1C (%)9.2 ± 1.8
Age at type 1 diabetes onset (years)7.1 ± 3.7
Early disease onset (%)38
≥1 episode severe hypoglycemia (%)44
Mean time A1C >9.0% (%)41.95 ± 26.31
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise noted. YASR, Young Adult Self Report; YSR, Youth Self Report.