Table 2—

Group (type 1 diabetic and control participants) differences on IQ and metabolites

Outcome variableMeans
Mean difference*
Type 1 diabetesControlEstimate95% CI
    VIQ96.2100.4−3.64−6.97 to −0.300.03
    PIQ106.4109.1−2.02−5.46 to 1.430.25
    FSIQ101.3105.1−3.03−6.07 to 0.000.05
    mI basal ganglia3.463.170.290.11 to 0.480.002
    mI frontal lobe4.173.520.650.46 to 0.84<0.001
    mI temporal lobe4.393.910.480.22 to 0.75<0.001
    Cr basal ganglia6.886.96−0.08−0.32 to 0.160.5
    Cr frontal lobe5.395.370.01−0.12 to 0.150.9
    Cr temporal lobe5.315.32−0.02−0.29 to 0.26>0.9
    Glx basal ganglia11.5011.370.14−0.35 to 0.630.6
    Glx frontal lobe9.999.760.16−0.26 to 0.580.4
    Glx temporal lobe8.438.310.12−0.37 to 0.610.6
    Cho basal ganglia1.631.560.070.01 to 0.140.027
    Cho frontal lobe1.611.480.130.07 to 0.19<0.001
    Cho temporal lobe1.721.640.09−0.00 to 0.180.04
    NAA basal ganglia7.988.47−0.49−0.83 to −0.150.005
    NAA frontal lobe8.278.67−0.41−0.65 to −0.160.001
    NAA temporal lobe7.507.84−0.35−0.72 to 0.030.07
  • *

    * Adjusted mean difference estimate (from ANCOVA model) is type 1 diabetes − control.

  • This analysis was based on nonparametric procedures because of an extreme value in the original data set; the estimate and approximate 95% CI are for a difference in the location of the populations. The P value is from the Mann-Whitney U test. Cr, creatine + creatine phosphate; Glx, glutamine + glutamate; mI, myoinositol.