Table 3—

Group (type 1 diabetic and control) differences on grey matter volume, white matter volume, and T2 relaxation time

Outcome variableCluster*Means
Mean difference
Type 1 diabeticControlEstimate99.9% CI
GM volume decrease
    Left thalamus1,7180.5310.5680.0380.005 to 0.0713.93
    Right thalamus1,6230.5250.5630.0380.005 to 0.0713.93
    Left frontal precentral/insular gyrus3730.5320.5750.0510.003 to 0.0983.55
    Right superior frontal gyrus2870.4310.4780.0490.003 to 0.0953.58
    Right frontal precentral gyrus780.3490.3900.0460.003 to 0.0883.60
    Right parietal postcentral gyrus1040.3750.4170.0460.002 to 0.0893.51
    Right parahippocampal gyrus790.5130.5540.0460.001 to 0.0913.45
WM volume decrease
    Right parahippocampal WM1830.2750.3290.0500.006 to 0.0943.82
    Left parahippocampal WM2900.2310.2750.0420.002 to 0.0823.55
    Left-middle frontal WM2070.1490.2010.0490.007 to 0.0903.94
    Left temporal WM1560.0920.1310.0370.003 to 0.0713.69
    Left insular WM1580.1820.2300.0430.004 to 0.0823.69
    Left-middle temporal WM1260.3860.4580.0740.006 to 0.1423.56
T2 decrease
    Left lentiform nucleus299625.5638.014.31.0 to 27.63.63
    Right lentiform nucleus1,058645.4662.919.13.1 to 35.14.01
    Left caudate nucleus1,843614.0627.715.42.2 to 28.63.92
    Right caudate nucleus2,901644.7659.316.22.2 to 30.33.88
    Left thalamus496678.8693.215.51.78 to 29.23.81
    Right thalamus753653.7669.817.62.6 to 32.633.95
    Red nuclei (bilaterally)225664.1676.413.71.0 to 26.43.63
    Right frontal WM251706.1727.722.81.4 to 44.183.59
    Right insular/superior temporal gyrus146712.0736.026.01.2 to 50.93.53
    Corpus callosum24706.9722.015.70.7 to 30.73.52
    Right parietal WM23716.6732.416.30.3 to 32.33.44
T2 increase
    Left-middle temporal GM37793.8762.1−30.0−59.6 to −0.5−3.43
  • Magnetic resonance regions are indicated as abnormal by voxel-based analysis (type 1 diabetic versus control participants using a one-tailed t test at P = 0.0005, noncorrected).

  • *

    * The cluster size is the number of voxels in a contiguous volume of suprathreshold voxels.

  • Mean values of voxel-based data are not adjusted for covariates. T2 values are in milliseconds; volume changes are in liters.

  • The mean difference is adjusted for covariates.

  • §

    § Since significance is the selection criteria for these areas, the t statistic is reported.

  • The bidirectional CIs are shown at 99.9% (equivalent threshold to the two one-tailed t tests at P = 0.0005). GM, gray matter; WM, white matter.