Table 2

Comparison of baseline and 12-month outcomes

Baseline12-Month follow-upAdjusted differences (95% CI)
Standardized effect size (adjusted)P values
Relative to usual careATSM vs. GMV
Structure of care
    Patient assessment of chronic illness care (summary scale)
        ATSM36.8 (23.4)58.9 (23.1)12.2 (5.6 to 18.8)0.510.0003
        GMV39.3 (26.6)60.2 (27.2)12.6 (6.0 to 19.2)0.530.0002
        Usual care41.0 (24.2)48.2 (26.5)
−0.4 (−7.0 to 6.1)−0.020.9
Processes of care
    Diabetes self-efficacy
        ATSM71.7 (17.3)77.2 (14.6)6.0 (2.0 to 10.1)0.410.003
        GMV73.3 (16.1)77.2 (15.0)5.5 (1.4 to 9.6)0.380.008
        Usual care73.5 (18.5)71.7 (17.8)
0.5 (−3.6 to 4.6)0.040.8
    Interpersonal processes of care (summary scale)
        ATSM59.2 (20.3)72.9 (15.4)9.0 (4.0 to 13.9)0.500.0004
        GMV63.4 (21.3)68.9 (21.3)3.3 (−1.7 to 8.3)0.180.2
        Usual care62.9 (20.6)65.4 (21.1)
5.7 (0.7 to 10.7)0.310.03
Behavioral outcomes
    Self-management, weekly (summary scale, in days)
        ATSM3.7 (1.1)4.4 (1.1)0.6 (0.4 to 0.9)0.62<0.0001
        GMV3.9 (1.2)4.1 (1.1)0.3 (0.01 to 0.6)0.300.04
        Usual care3.9 (1.2)3.8 (1.1)
0.3 (0.1 to 0.6)0.340.02
    Moderate physical activity, weekly (min)
        ATSM206325.0123.9 (14.8 to 233.0)0.310.03
        GMV285320.569.1 (−41.2 to 179.4)0.170.2
        Usual care195193.5
54.8 (−62.1 to 186.3)0.140.3
    Vigorous exercise, weekly (min)
        ATSM5554.832.2 (−9.8 to 74.2)0.210.1
        GMV4145.423.3 (−19.0 to 65.5)0.150.3
        Usual care6723.0
8.9 (−33.7 to 51.5)0.060.7
Functional outcomesRate ratio
    Bed days, prior month
        ATSM3.8 (8.0)1.4 (2.7)−1.7 (−3.3 to −0.1)0.5 (0.3, 1.0)0.05
        GMV3.6 (7.0)3.6 (7.5)0.6 (−1.0 to 2.2)1.4 (0.7, 2.9)0.3
        Usual care3.9 (7.6)3.1 (7.2)
−2.3 (−3.9 to −0.4)0.4 (0.2–0.7)0.004
    Restricted activity (% ≥ often/always)
        ATSM14.96.00.4 (0.01 to 0.9)*0.03*
        GMV16.316.21.0 (0.5 to 1.9)0.9
        Usual care17.121.01.3 (0.7 to 2.3)0.4
    SF-12 mental health
        ATSM57.2 (28.1)67.0 (25.8)3.7 (−2.0 to 9.4)0.180.2
        GMV61.7 (24.0)63.0 (24.0)−2.9 (−8.6 to 2.9)−0.150.3
        Usual care58.8 (26.7)64.2 (27.2)
6.5 (0.7 to 12.4)0.310.03
    SF-12 physical health
        ATSM51.3 (30.0)60.2 (29.1)2.7 (−4.0 to 9.5)0.110.4
        GMV50.9 (29.5)57.1 (29.7)−0.1 (−6.9 to 6.7)−0.011.0
        Usual care50.0 (30.5)56.7 (31.3)
2.9 (−4.0 to 9.7)0.120.4
Metabolic outcomes
    A1C (%)
        ATSM (n = 101)9.3 (1.7)8.7 (1.9)−0.1 (−0.5 to 0.4)0.040.8
        GMV (n = 96)9.3 (1.9)9.0 (2.0)0.2 (−0.2 to 0.7)−0.140.3
        Usual care (n = 103)9.8 (2.1)9.0 (2.2)
−0.3 (−0.8 to 0.2)0.180.2
    SBP (mmHg)
        ATSM (n = 107)136.9 (21.4)136.9 (20.4)−3.2 (−8.3 to 1.9)0.190.2
        GMV (n = 104)142.4 (19.8)138.9 (20.3)−3.9 (−9.0 to 1.2)0.230.1
        Usual care (n = 108)139.6 (20.8)141.5 (23.9)
0.7 (−4.5 to 5.9)−0.040.8
    DBP (mmHg)
        ATSM (n = 107)75.0 (11.8)75.4 (12.3)−1.6 (−5.1 to 2.0)0.140.4
        GMV (n = 104)78.1 (12.7)75.5 (11.3)−3.1 (−6.6 to 0.4)0.260.08
        Usual care (n = 108)78.1 (10.9)78.5 (18.5)
1.5 (−2.0 to 5.1)−0.130.4
    BMI (kg/m2)
        ATSM (n = 104)30.3 (6.8)30.7 (6.9)0.1 (−0.4 to 0.5)−0.060.8
        GMV (n = 104)32.1 (8.2)32.4 (8.4)0.02 (−0.5 to 0.5)−0.010.9
        Usual care (n = 105)31.2 (8.7)31.4 (8.5)
0.1 (−0.4 to 0.5)−0.060.8
  • Baseline and 12-month follow-up data are on a 0–100 scale unless otherwise indicated. For ATSM, n = 101; for GMV, n = 99, and for usual care, n = 105, unless otherwise specified.

  • *Data are ORs for change within ATSM that is significantly different from change within usual care (OR 0.4 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02); GMV is not significantly different from usual care or ATSM (P > 0.20).