Table 3

Risk of developing metabolic syndrome components according to diet soda intake categories in participants from MESA

Rare or neverMore often than rare/never but <1 serving/week≥1 serving/week to <1 serving/day≥1 serving/day
Blood pressure*
    n1,990322602449
    Cases51274144113
    HR (95% CI)1.00 (model 2)1.07 (0.83–1.37)1.11 (0.91–1.34)1.17 (0.95–1.45)
Waist circumference*
    n1,544208399277
    Cases282449381
    HR (95% CI)1.00 (model 2)1.13 (0.82–1.57)1.22 (0.95–1.55)1.59 (1.23–2.07)
HDL cholesterol*
    n1,881306609434
    Cases60497173127
    HR (95% CI)1.00 (model 2)1.12 (0.88–1.44)0.96 (0.78–1.17)1.05 (0.84–1.30)
Triglycerides*
    n2,143344666476
    Cases49978156115
    HR (95% CI)1.00 (model 2)1.05 (0.82–1.33)1.10 (0.91–1.33)1.04 (0.84–1.28)
Fasting glucose*
    n2,453400793584
    Cases66497215177
    HR (95% CI)1.00 (model 2)0.97 (0.78–1.21)1.13 (0.96–1.32)1.28 (1.08–1.52)
  • *Metabolic syndrome components are defined as follows: high blood pressure: systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg or taking antihypertensive mediation; high waist circumference: ≥102 cm if male or ≥88 cm if female; low HDL cholesterol: <40 mg/dl if male or <50 mg/dl if female; high triglycerides: ≥150 mg/dl; high fasting glucose: ≥100 mg/dl.

  • †Model 2 adjusted for study site, age, sex, race/ethnicity, energy intake education, physical activity, smoking status, pack-years, and weekly supplement use or more.