Table 1

Clinical characteristics of the male UroEDIC cohort

DCCT baseline (1983–1989)
Year 10 EDIC (2003)
ConventionalIntensivePConventionalIntensiveP
n302289302289
Sociodemographic characteristics
    Age (years)27.6 ± 6.727.4 ± 6.80.9044.6 ± 6.644.7 ± 6.60.89
    Race*
    White, not of Hispanic origin293 (97.0)277 (95.8)293 (97.0)277 (95.8)
    Black, not of Hispanic origin4 (1.3)7 (2.4)0.484 (1.3)7 (2.4)0.48
    Hispanic4 (1.3)2 (0.7)4 (1.3)2 (0.7)
    Asian or Pacific Islander1 (0.3)3 (1.0)1 (0.3)3 (1.0)
    Married169 (56.0)146 (50.5)0.19223 (75.9)221 (78.4)0.47
    Cigarette smoker53 (17.5)58 (20.1)0.4398 (33.0)99 (34.7)0.66
Diabetes treatment and control
    Cohort
Primary number159 (52.6)138 (47.8)0.230.23
Secondary number143 (47.4)151 (52.2)
    Diabetes duration (years)5.1 ± 3.95.7 ± 4.10.0621.7 ± 4.622.6 ± 4.90.04
    A1C8.9 ± 1.58.9 ± 1.50.597.7 ± 1.37.8 ± 1.20.13
    Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−1)0.63 ± 0.240.67 ± 0.250.080.68 ± 0.230.73 ± 0.270.03
Microvascular complications
    Retinopathy
Nonproliferative or none302 (100.0)289 (100.0)0.62143 (47.4)208 (72.0)<0.001
Proliferative0 (0.0)0 (0.0)159 (52.6)81 (28.0)
    Nephropathy
None (AER§ <40)289 (95.7)274 (94.8)205 (67.9)219 (75.8)
Microalbuminuria (40 ≤ AER < 300)13 (4.3)15 (5.2)0.6148 (15.9)58 (20.1)<0.001
Albuminuria (AER ≥300)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)49 (16.2)12 (4.2)
    Hypertension0 (0.0)0 (0.0)155 (52.2)113 (39.6)0.002
    Creatinine clearance (ml/min per 1.73 m2)132.2 (26.0)133.1 (31.3)0.87117.5 (28.9)122.5 (28.9)0.03
    Peripheral neuropathy#20 (6.6)23 (8.0)0.53227 (75.2)189 (65.4)0.009
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *Race was classified by the participant during the enrollment interview in the DCCT.

  • †Defined as having ever smoked.

  • ‡Determined by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study on a scale of 0–23; <12 nonproliferative, ≥12 proliferative.

  • §Albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h).

  • ¶Hypertension is defined as sitting systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or the use of antihypertensive medication.

  • #Defined in the DCCT by the presence of definite clinically evident distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and an abnormal nerve conduction study, or in EDIC by more than six positive responses on the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire or a score >2 on the examination.