Table 2

Clinical characteristics of UroEDIC men according to presence or absence of moderate/severe LUTS at EDIC year 10

Moderate/severe LUTSNo/mild LUTSP
n115476
Sociodemographic characteristics
    Age (years)46.6 ± 6.444.1 ± 6.6<0.001
    Race
        White, not of Hispanic origin111 (96.5)459 (96.4)
        Black, not of Hispanic origin2 (1.7)9 (1.9)0.68
        Hispanic2 (1.7)4 (0.8)
        Asian or Pacific Islander0 (0.0)4 (0.8)
    Married83 (74.1)361 (77.8)0.40
    Graduate education26 (23.0)107 (23.0)0.99
    Cigarette smoker40 (35.4)157 (33.5)0.70
    Drinking status63 (55.8)234 (50.2)0.29
    BMI (kg/m2)27.5 (3.9)28.1 (4.2)0.29
    Sildenafil citrate use*8 (7.0)22 (4.6)0.31
    α-Blocker use3 (2.8)1 (0.2)0.03
Diabetes treatment and control
    Diabetes duration (years)22.0 ± 4.922.2 ± 4.70.53
    Arm of DCCT
        Intensive60 (52)229 (48)0.51
        Conventional55 (48)247 (52)
    Cohort
        Primary61 (53.0)236 (49.6)0.51
        Secondary54 (47.0)240 (50.4)
    A1C at DCCT baseline (%)8.8 ± 1.48.7 ± 1.50.38
    DCCT mean A1C8.1 ± 1.38.1 ± 1.40.80
    Time weighted DCCT/EDIC mean A1C8.1 ± 1.08.1 ± 1.10.84
    Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−1)0.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.30.56
Microvascular complications
    Retinopathy
        Nonproliferative or none64 (55.7)287 (60.3)0.36
        Proliferative51 (44.3)189 (39.7)
    Nephropathy
        None (AER <40)77 (67.0)347 (72.9)
        Microalbuminuria (40 ≤ AER < 300)22 (19.1)84 (17.6)0.31
        Albuminuria (AER ≥300)16 (13.9)45 (9.5)
    Creatinine clearance (ml/min per 1.73 m2)117.5 ± 32.0120.6 ± 28.20.26
    Hypertension§51 (45.1)217 (46.3)0.83
    Peripheral neuropathy ever during DCCT and EDIC92 (80.0)324 (68.1)0.01
Macrovascular complications
    Coronary calcification at EDIC year 10 >050 (48.1)170 (38.6)0.08
    Carotid intimal medial thickness at EDIC year 1#0.7 ± 1.70.2 ± 1.70.002
    Carotid intimal medial thickness at EDIC year 6#0.6 ± 1.70.3 ± 1.80.05
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl)181.6 ± 34.8179.1 ± 33.30.61
    Triglyceride (mg/dl)102.3 ± 68.896.2 ± 65.00.53
Other complications
    Erectile dysfunction**44 (39.3)88 (19.2)<0.001
    Occlusion (ABI†† <0.9)9 ± 7.838 ± 8.00.96
    Clinically significant occlusion (ABI <0.8)3 ± 2.615 ± 3.20.99
    Calcification (ABI >1.3)4 ± 3.522 ± 4.60.59
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%). All variables are at EDIC year 10 except where indicated.

  • *Sildenafil citrate use reported during yearly EDIC drug inventory.

  • †Determined by ETDRS <12 nonproliferative, ≥12 proliferative.

  • ‡Albumin excretion rate (mg/24 h).

  • §Hypertension is defined as sitting systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or the use of antihypertensive medication.

  • ¶Defined in the DCCT by the presence of definite clinically evident distal symmetrical polyneuropathy and an abnormal nerve conduction study or in EDIC by more than six positive responses on the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire or a score >2 on the examination.

  • #Combined intimal medial thickness.

  • **Erectile dysfunction was assessed in UroEDIC with an anonymous questionnaire that included the erectile function, orgasmic, and desire domains of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). A binary outcome variable for erectile dysfunction was created based on responses to the question: “Over the past 4 weeks, how would you rate your confidence that you get and keep your erection?” If the participant answered “very low” (1) or “low” (2), they were considered to have erectile dysfunction. If they answered “moderate” (3), “high” (4), or “very high” (5), they were considered to have no erectile dysfunction.

  • ††The mean of the two brachial pressures was divided into each of the four systolic ankle pressures to yield four values for the ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). The ABI selected for the analysis was the smallest of the four ratios.